3D Medical Images Compression

3D Medical Images Compression

Mohamed Fawzy Aly (Cairo University, Egypt) and Mahmood A. Mahmood (Cairo University, Egypt)
Copyright: © 2018 |Pages: 21
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-5246-8.ch010

Abstract

Medical images are digital representations of the body. Medical imaging technology has improved tremendously in the past few decades. The amount of diagnostic data produced in a medical image is vast and as a result could create problems when sending the medical data through a network. To overcome this, there is a great need for the compression of medical images for communication and storage purposes. This chapter contains an introduction to compression types, an overview of medical image modalities, and a survey on coding techniques that deal with 3D medical image compression.
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Image Compression

Image compression is the appliance of data compression on digital images which are made up of large number of pixels. Compression is the reduction in the amount of image data (the number of bytes) while preserving information (image details) with the intention of optimizing and putting to maximum use the data storage and data transmission facilities. Images transmitted over the internet are an excellent example of why data compression is important. Suppose we need to download a digitized color photograph over a computer's 33.6 kbps modem. If the image is not compressed (a TIFF file, for example), it will contain about 600 kilo bytes of data. If it has been compressed using a lossless technique (such as used in the GIF format), it will be about one-half this size, or 300 Kbytes. If lossy compression has been used (a JPEG file), it will be about 50 Kbytes. The download time for these three equivalent files are 142 seconds, 71 seconds, and 12 seconds, respectively which is a huge difference.

The following table (Table 1) shows the qualitative transition from simple text to full-motion video data and the disk space transmission bandwidth, and transmission time needed to store and transmit such uncompressed data (Sachin Dhawan, 2011).

Table 1.
Multimedia data types and uncompressed storage space, transmission bandwidth, and transmission time required; the prefix kilo- denotes a factor of 1000 rather than 1024
Multimedia DataSize / DurationBits/Pixel or Bits/SampleUncompressed Size (B for Bytes)Transmission Bandwidth
(b for bits)
Transmission Time
A page of text11” x 8.5 “Varying resolution4-8 KB32 – 46 kb / page1.1 – 2.2 sec
Telephone Quality Speech10 sec8 bps80 KB64 kb / sec22.2 sec
Gray Scale Image512 x 5128 bpp262 KB2.1 Mb / image1 min 13 sec
Color Image512 x 51224 bpp786 KB6.29 Mb / image3 min 39 sec
Medical Image2048 x 168012 bpp5.16 MB41.3 Mb / image23 min 54 sec
SHD Image2048 x 204824 bpp12.58 MB100 Mb / image58 min 15 sec

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