5G: The Platform

5G: The Platform

Ravi Sekhar Yarrabothu (Vignan's University, India)
Copyright: © 2018 |Pages: 39
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2799-2.ch001


Cellular communications has evolved from 1G to 4G to cater for the various service offerings of voice communication, data exchange and web browsing. The coming generation, 5G, is aiming at the wider concept of the Internet of things (IoT). A broad consensus by industry and standards organizations is to introduce 5G around 2020 time frame. This chapter will overview 5G as a necessary platform for the success of the IoT. It provides an overview of 1G to 4G evolution and the demand issues behind 5G while discussing deficiencies of 4G LTE which prohibits it from rising up to the challenges presented in IoT. On the path to 5G, the chapter outlines the 5G Vision, its requirements, use cases, business models and value creation. Discussions of some of the 5G challenges are included in the chapter; its coexistence with current technologies, its strict latency and high spectrum requirements, and the performance and variability of the QoS requirements of 5G applications. Finally, an outline of 5G research activities and initiatives across the globe is provided.
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The cellular industry has already started working on the development of 5G, as the 4G deployments are getting completed across the world. However, there are few issues that are being discussed among research institutions, standards bodies, cellular operators, the supplier community, trade organizations and governments – What will be the 5G deployment time frame?, What will be the characteristics of the cellular networks beyond 2020?, and What will be the likely technologies that come in to picture for 5G?. This chapter is written in an attempt to address these questions in a systematic way.

5th Generation cellular communication networks are going to revolutionize current life styles by providing ubiquitous and reliable communication. Internet of Things (IoT) concept and Tactile Internet are the major drivers for 5G communications (Fettweis, & Alamouti, 2014) and its use cases. Thus, 5G Platform can be defined as “a cellular platform which provides a ubiquitous, reliable, low power and high data rate mobile communication network between smarter devices”.

Keeping in view of the 5G Research the following high level Key Performance Indicators (KPI’s) are proposed to frame the research activities (IWPC 2014, METIS, 2015):

  • Providing 1000 times higher wireless area capacity and more varied service capabilities compared to current day.

  • Saving up to 90% of energy per service provided.

  • Reducing the average service creation time cycle from 90 hours to 90 minutes.

  • Creating a secure, reliable and dependable Internet with a “zero perceived” downtime for services provision.

  • Facilitating very dense deployments of wireless communication links to connect over 7 trillion wireless devices serving over 7 billion people.

  • Enabling advanced user controlled privacy

Before we go in to the necessity of 5G, we will start with a very brief overview of existing cellular technologies, and their limitations.


1G To 4G Cellular Communications Evolution

Ever since its birth in the 1980s, mobile communications have been undergoing more than three decades of explosive growth and the mobile network has become a basic information network connecting human society. It already has a major impact on people’s daily lives, and also become an important engine for economy development and social informatization.

Cellular communications has evolved from 1G to 4G to cater to various service offerings. Analog voice services with mobility are provided by 1G and digital voice services with increased voice capacity in 2G; while 3G mobile broadband services enabled faster data rates and better connectivity. Now, 4G systems provide high speed data along with voice and multimedia services. Mobile communications evolving from 1G to 4G are shown in the Table 1.

Table 1.
1G to 4G evolution
GenerationStandardData SpeedSignal TypeModulation TechniquesApplication
1GAMPS/TACS2.4 KbpsAnalogFMVoice only
2GGSM/CDMA64 KbpsDigitalPSK, GMSKVoice and messaging
2.5GGPRS/CDMA 200064-144 KbpsDigitalQPSK, PSKData only
3GUMTS144 Kbps – 40MbpsDigitalQPSK, QAMVoice, Data, Messaging, Multimedia, Web browsing
4GLTE40 - 300 MbpsDigitalQAMHigh Data rates, HD Video streaming

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