A Flipped Learning Approach to University EFL Courses

A Flipped Learning Approach to University EFL Courses

Yasushige Ishikawa (Kyoto University of Foreign Studies, Japan), Reiko Akahane-Yamada (Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International (ATR), Japan), Craig Smith (Kyoto University of Foreign Studies, Japan), Masayuki Murakami (Kyoto University of Foreign Studies, Japan), Mutsumi Kondo (Kyoto University of Foreign Studies, Japan), Misato Kitamura (Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International (ATR), Japan), Yasushi Tsubota (Kyoto Institute of Technology, Japan) and Masatake Dantsuji (Academic Center for Computing and Media Studies, Kyoto University, Japan)
Copyright: © 2018 |Pages: 11
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2255-3.ch334
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Background

Defining Flipped Learning

BL is a combination of face-to-face delivery and online delivery of learning materials and activities (Osguthorpe & Graham, 2003). Teachers interested in BL are searching for ways to make use of the rapidly expanding number of online easily-accessible learning resources. The increase in the use of technology to connect learning environments inside and outside the classroom has recently accelerated due to two developments in educational resources: the free online access to university courses via software, e.g. iTunes U, and websites such as Coursera (https://www.coursera.org/); and the sophisticated communication capability of mobile devices such as smart phones and tablet computers.

A promising response to these developments is the FL approach to the BL teaching methodology (Stuntz, 2013; Bishop & Verleger, 2013) which reverses the conventional patterns of classroom learning. Hamdan, McKnight, McKnight, & Arfstrom (2013) define the differences between FL practices and distance learning and BL courses by explaining that if the use of computers and online content does not alter conventional patterns of direct instruction in teacher-centered classrooms, it is not FL. In FL courses students are provided with outside-of-class online learning materials conventionally presented in class by the teacher. Classroom time is used for students to seek advice from the teacher and to help each other as they complete tasks which are usually done as outside-of-class assignments (Lage, Platt, & Treglia, 2000).

Yarbro, Arfstrom, McKnight, & McKnight (2014) define FL as “a pedagogical approach in which direct instruction moves from the group learning space to the individual learning space, and the resulting group space is transformed into a dynamic, interactive learning environment where the educator guides students as they apply concepts and engage creatively in the subject matter” (p.5). FL facilitates active collaborative learning during class time by allowing teachers to respond to individual differences in the comprehension of course content. At the same time students are given opportunities to find learning methods and materials that suit their own learning styles (Lage, Platt, & Treglia, 2000) through engagement in project-based learning activities which include small-group discussion and problem-solving activities. Thus, FL has the greatest chance of success with small-sized classes that make peer interaction manageable and allow teachers to take on a coaching role.

The rationale of FL, the expectations for student participation in their own learning, and the role of the teacher should be explained and demonstrated to students in the early stages of a course.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Self-Regulated Learning: Self-regulated learning is a set of proactive processes that students use to acquire academic skills, such as setting goals, selecting and deploying strategies, and self-monitoring one’s own effectiveness.

E-Mentoring: E-Mentoring may establish a computer mediated, mutually beneficial relationship between a mentor and a learner if the mentor advises and encourages the learner by modeling effective learning behavior in ways that are boundary-less, egalitarian, and qualitatively different from traditional face-to-face mentoring.

Blended Learning: Blended learning in this chapter is defined as a combination of in-class activities with outside-of-class activities.

Flipped Learning: Flipped learning in this chapter is defined as a form of blended learning in which students complete the EFL course TOEIC study materials outside of class online and receive personalized problem-solving guidance from the teacher in class.

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