A New Perspective for School Management in the Digital Age: Digital Culture

A New Perspective for School Management in the Digital Age: Digital Culture

Eren Kesim (Anadolu University, Turkey)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-3417-4.ch111
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Abstract

All nations throughout the world have been influenced by rapid developments and transformations in the twenty first century. Throughout this process of rapid change, in which newly developed technologies and globalization gained momentum, all social establishments are being restructured. The restructuring process may only be realized with the involvement of individuals raised and trained in accordance with the age we live in, thus the strategic importance of educational organizations has risen. For educational organizations to fulfill the expectations of the responsibilities assigned to them, they must be managed in accordance with the requirements of this era. School principals are laden with important responsibilities throughout this process. One of the foremost variables of the transformation process enabled by digital technologies in the digital age is the concept of digital culture. This concept must be analyzed regarding its repercussions in educational organizations. This study analyzes the digital culture which has emerged in the digital age regarding its repercussion in schools and school management from a conceptual perspective.
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Introduction

The complicated transformation process in the knowledge society that was based on the continuous development of information and communication technologies is directly related to the emergence of a new technology paradigm. This social structure, which is experiencing intense transformation processes, is based on knowledge and information and is defined as the knowledge society. There is a two-way interaction between society and technology. As much as society is being influenced by technology, it also shapes the future of technology (Castells, 2006, pp. 3-6). The rapid changes that emerged in technology also influenced the economy as a social institution (Tapscott & Williams, 2006, p.10).

Change and transformation on a grand scale is taking place in the world, heavily influencing all organizations. The concept of a “world” economy is becoming a global reality, resulting in what is essentially a global economy. Emerging technologies have become the most important variable in the process of change (Hough, 2008, p.14). The processes of economic and social change that was widely felt in the twenty-first century forced individuals to adapt to these processes. In this case, all countries must be ready for the level of competition taking place on a global scale (Keating, 2005, pp.24-25).

Friedman (2005, pp.9-10) has analyzed the historical development process of globalization as three significant eras. The first globalization era, being described as globalization 1.0, covers the time period from 1492 to 1800. In the first era of globalization, the most important reality is the globalization process of countries. Second globalization era, globalization 2.0, covers the time period from 1800 to 2000. In the second era of globalization, the main idea is the globalization of multinational companies. The last significant globalization era, denoted globalization 3.0, covers the time period from the beginning of the year 2000 to the current. The main thought of this new significant globalization era is the globalization of individuals. In other words, globalization 3.0 is accepted as the era of competition and collaboration of individuals on a global scale. In addition to this, information and communication technologies eliminated the long distances and flattened the world (Friedman, 2005, pp.9-11).

Global economy has become a knowledge-based process in this age (Tibebu, Bandyopadhyay & Negash, 2010, p.280). Nowadays, all organizations confront the effects of the globalization process. Strong competition has been established in the knowledge economy, forcing all organizations to rebuild their organization and management structures (Merchant & Merchant, 2011, p.27). With the process of globalization, new technological developments impact the world as a whole (Bolger, 2009, p.308).

A process of intense competition has emerged in today’s knowledge based society, forcing all organizations to keep pace with change. In this respect, giving direction to organizational change has become one of the most important responsibilities of a manager (Jones, 2013, p.33). Individuals who are well educated in accordance with the requirements of the global knowledge economy, contribute an important competitive advantage for countries. This situation increases the responsibilities undertaken by schools within society, as they play a critical role in training the aforementioned individuals. Considering this fact, effective leadership plays a key role in the process of training individuals to adopt the fast growing process of change (Bush, 2008, p.8).

Social institutions are heavily influenced by new emerging technologies. In this process, growing information and communication technologies offer significant opportunities to education as a social institution (Jereb & Bernik, 2006, p.345). Rapid changes that have emerged in information and communication technologies and the globalization process has become a reality that must be faced, forcing educational organizations into a process of structural change (Teixeira and Titlestad, 2013, p.107).

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