A Pathway to Differential Modelling of Nipah Virus

A Pathway to Differential Modelling of Nipah Virus

Dheva Rajan S. (Almusanna College of Technology, Oman)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-2742-9.ch009
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Abstract

This chapter is devoted to the study of mathematical modelling part of infectious diseases, especially the nipah virus. In the past few decades, one cannot deny that enormous new unanticipated diseases have been the cause of serious concern among the human community and that so many viruses have begun emerging and re-emerging though people are trying all means to get rid of diseases. It can even be said that diseases of all sorts are ruling the world. Early prediction of diseases that spread in humans plays a vital role to protect living beings. Most of such diseases are highly infectious, get transmitted from human to human or through some other vectors. Several research and developments take place in the pharma industry notably after the Second World War. Hence, the predictions are not just for theoretical purposes as quite a number of pharma industries use mathematical models for their findings in new medicines and even to decide the quantity of medicine production. This chapter gives an overview of the different researches conducted in mathematical modelling of nipah virus.
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Introduction

A virus is called zoonotic if it spreads to humans from animals. Nipah is one of the virulentzoonotic viruses that is reasoned to be the cause of deadly Nipahfever. This virus can also be spread directly through people themselves or consumption of filthy food. This virus attacks not only humans but also animals. It is notated popularly by NiVand this notation will be used throughout this chapter to denote Nipah Virus. NiV can cause severe diseases in animals like pigs. The study of infections is called infectionology and the study deals withinfectionology concept towards mathematical modelling. At the time of first outbreak of NiV, infection not only in pigs but other household creatures, for example, horses, goats, sheeps, etc were also reported. NiV profoundly infectious in pigs as they are irresistible during the incubation period, which keeps going from 4 to 14 days. A contaminated pig can display no indications, yet some create intense fever, issues in breathing, and neurological side effects like trembling, jerking and muscle fits. But the mortality is low with the exception of youthful piglets. NiV ought to be suspected if pigs additionally have an abnormal woofing hack or if human instances of encephalitis are available.The virus develops in the bladder, saliva, and face of fruit bats and is harbored naturally in fruit bats and microbats of numerous species. The fruit bat is also called as flying fox. It also infects bats when they eat the bites of the other bats and their urine and saliva. When humans come in close contact with infected domestic animals, they too become infected. Apart from pigs, the virus is also found in domestic cats, dogs, and horses. Also, bats can often live in high altitudes. Accordingly, in the pots tied to tall palm trees if the saliva and urine of the bats get mixed, it would spread quickly when humans drink it. This will result in significant economic loss for farmers. Post-mortem inspection showed critical NiV to be a systemic infection (Wong et al 2002)Canines were observed to be frequentlydiseasedas well (Field H et al. 2001). Anotherhazard factor was found with caninesdying on farms frequently (Parashar UD et al. 2000). It also can be transmitted from human to human (H-H). It was Rahman SA et al. (2010) who discovered that Pteropus bats were exposed to be the reservoir of such a poisonous infection in Malaysia which diseased the magnifying hosts and vectors too by ingestion of bat-nibbled fruit and there is no proof of H-Htransmission from these epidemics but later Stephen P. et al (2009) proposed the evidence of H-H transmission of disease. Here, especially in epidemiology modelling, one should know the few terminologies like host, vector, etc., (Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Division of Vector-Borne Diseases”)

Host (Intermediate stage): A living being tainted by a parasite whereas the parasite is in aninitial formative structure, not explicitly developed.

Host (Primary stage):An essential host is a life form that gives sustenance and haven to a parasite while enabling it to turn out to be explicitly full grown, while an auxiliary host is one involved by a parasite during the larval or agamic phases of its life cycle.

Reservoir:The creature or living being in which the infection or parasite regularly exist in.

Vector: Any mediator, living or something else, acting as a carrier and spreads parasites and infections. Likewise, a living being or chemical used to transporta gene into anotherhost.

de Wit, E., & Munster, V. J. (2015) have given animal models of disease that shed light on NiV pathogenesis and transmission. A beginner to such modelling can read this, to get more insight about the channels for the spread of the diseases, the factors causing it and how to develop a non-mathematical model initially. Hammoud, D. A et al (2018) proposed the model to determine the Aerosol exposure to intermediate size NiV particles that induces nervous illness in African green monkeys, though this work has deviated from the current objective.One might be interested in creating models and forecasting, hence, the author wishes to suggest this article for such aspirants whereas earlier Johnston, S (2015) has given a wonderfully detailed analysis of the African Green Monkey Model of NiV Disease.Middleton et al., (2007) detailed in their work based on an Investigational taint of Pteropus that bats with NiVhave not affected or given the disease in the fruit bats. Examinations of rodents and other faunae have not perceived further natural life repositories for NiV (Hsu VP 2004 & Yob JM 2001). Nowak (1994) stated in the work that around 50 kinds of Pteropus bats live in the South East Side of Asia.

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