A Review of Literature on Adjustment Issues of International Students: Recommendations for Future Practices and Research

A Review of Literature on Adjustment Issues of International Students: Recommendations for Future Practices and Research

Eunjin Hwang (Sam Houston State University, USA), Nara M. Martirosyan (Sam Houston State University, USA) and George W. Moore (Sam Houston State University, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-9746-1.ch012
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Abstract

There is a scarcity of studies wherein a critical review or synthesis exists on the adjustment of international students with a few exceptional works. Therefore, through critical analyses of recent studies from various disciplines, the authors examine conceptual applications of existing models or typologies incorporated in previous studies, and redefine the nature of problems encountered by international students with a synthesis of study results on their adjustment issues: psychological, socio-cultural, and academic adjustment. Furthermore, suggestions for both practitioners and researchers are elaborated in the chapter. These suggestions include creating a new conceptual/theoretical model, emphasizing a critical role played by the host university, and tailoring support services to satisfy specific needs of diverse groups of international students within the specific campus context.
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Background

In this section, the historical perspectives on the cross-cultural adjustment will be examined with the focus of Oberg (1960)’s culture shock, which is regarded as a seminal work in the cross-cultural studies. To see how the perspective has evolved over time, the contemporary models on the cross-cultural adjustment will be discussed. Additionally, various acculturation models including Berry (2006)’s acculturation models will be elaborated.

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