A Review on Optimization Modeling of Hybrid Energy Systems

A Review on Optimization Modeling of Hybrid Energy Systems

Marwa Mallek (Faculty of Economics and Management of Sfax, Tunisia), Jalel Euchi (College of Business and Economics, Qassim University, Saudi Arabia) and Yacin Jerbi (National School of Engineers of Sfax (ENIS), Tunisia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-0268-6.ch003

Abstract

Hybrid energy systems (HESs) are an excellent solution for electrification of remote rural areas where the grid extension is difficult or not economical. Usually, HES generally integrate one or several renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, hydropower, and geothermal with fossil fuel powered diesel/petrol generator to provide electric power where the electricity is either fed directly into the grid or to batteries for energy storage. This chapter presents a review on the solution approaches for determining the HES systems based on various objective functions (e.g. economic, social, technical, environmental and health impact). In order to take account of environmental and health impacts from energy systems, several energy optimization model was developed for minimizing pollution and maximizing the production of renewable energy.
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Energy Sources

Energy is obtained from many sources, such as fossil fuel energy like petroleum, coal, and natural gas and renewable sources like solar Photovoltaic, Solar Thermal, Wind Turbine, Biomass, Hydropower and geothermal. These energy sources are converted to electric where the electricity is either fed directly into the Grid or to storage batteries

Solar Energy

Solar energy can be converted into electricity by solar photovoltaic (SPV) and solar thermal (STH). The nature of Photovoltaic power system depends on the geographical location. Solar panels are connected either in parallel or in series based on the required current and voltage. On the one hand, SPV system is the direct converting solar radiation into current electricity using semiconductors that exhibit the photovoltaic effect (Overstraeten et al., 1986). On the other hand, STH systems collect and concentrate sunlight to produce the high-temperature heat needed to generate power (Asif, 2017).

Wind Turbine Energy

Wind turbines work by converting the rotational kinetic energy in the turbine of the wind into electrical energy. It can be classified into two types based on the horizontal axis and vertical axis about which the turbine rotates. In addition, this turbine that rotate around a horizontal axis are most common while vertical-axis turbines are less frequently used (Babu, 2013).

Biomass Energy

Biomass can be considered a renewable energy source based on the carbon cycle such as wood, crops, and algae. It can be converted into biogas or into liquid biofuels for the production of energy. It is the only renewable energy source that releases CO2 (Carbon dioxide) in use (Goffé & Ferrasse, 2019).

Hydropower Energy

Generally, hydroelectric energy comes from the force of water (river, waterfall, stream, wave, etc.). It is rated a renewable energy source since the water cycle is constantly renewed by the sun (Sharma et al., 2019).

Geothermal Energy

Geothermal energy is energy derived from the original formation of the planet, from radioactive decay of minerals, from volcanic activity, and from solar energy absorbed at the surface (Kakkar et al., 2012).

Fossil Fuel Energy

Fossil fuels come from the living matter, remains of plants or animals. They contain big percentages of carbon like petroleum, coal, and natural gas. They are currently the most used energy source in the world with a rate of 86.8% (IEA, 2017).

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