A Study of the Problems Faced by Industrial Training Institutes (ITI) in India as Perceived by Different Stakeholders

A Study of the Problems Faced by Industrial Training Institutes (ITI) in India as Perceived by Different Stakeholders

Usha Ajithkumar (University of Mumbai, India)
Copyright: © 2017 |Pages: 26
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-1811-2.ch008
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Abstract

The study focused on the problems faced by students pursuing ITI and the views of school students about ITI. Data was collected by the researcher through questionnaire distributed to students and in-depth interview with the principals of ITI. The themes that emerged from the data were General information about the student, Information about his family, Information about ITI education, Administration and organization, Possibilities and equipments, Teacher's capacity, Curriculum, and Community's perception. The findings highlight lack of infrastructure, inadequate teacher capacity, lack of updated curriculum, lack of awareness about ITI among students from formal schooling. On the basis of the findings the study recommended that the Government needed – Curriculum Enhancement Policies, Increasing Training Capacity, Program Evaluation, and Apprentice Programs; Infrastructure Improvement, Personnel, and Personal and Professional Development.
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Introduction

India is at the cusp of a great new opportunity: the demographic dividend. The proportion of the dependent population is decreasing, and the share of the working age population has been increasing, and will continue to increase over the next two decades. If they are not productively employed, this dividend might become a demographic nightmare. On the other hand, if they are better educated and more skilled, they will be able to not only contribute to India's growth, but also enhance their own incomes. India's 459 million large workforces has started with a severe disadvantage in that barely a tenth of the workforce has received any kind of training, formal or informal. If it is to participate in the growth process, and if the growth is to be inclusive, skill development has to take a quantum leap. This chapter presented a study of problems faced by Industrial Training Institutes in India as perceived by different Stakeholders. It also discussed vocational education programmes in India as well as challenges militating against successful delivery of the programme in India.

India has the lowest proportion of trained youth in the world. The quantitative dimension of India's skill development challenge is that 80 per cent of new entrants to the workforce have no opportunity for skill training. Against 12.8 million per annum new entrants to the workforce, the existing training capacity is only 3.1 million per annum. The Prime Minister's National Council on Skill Development has endorsed a Vision to create 500 million skilled people by 2022, whereas, at present only about 2 percent of the workforce has formal training (plus another 8 percent with informal training) as against 96 percent in Korea, 75 percent in Germany, 80 per cent in Japan and 68 percent in the United Kingdom. This clearly highlights the gaps in the skill development system and the need for adequate resources and resource funds to fill these gaps.

Moreover, India’s transition to a knowledge-based economy requires a new generation of educated and skilled people. Its competitive edge will be determined by its people’s ability to create, share, and use knowledge effectively. A knowledge economy requires India to develop workers –knowledge workers and knowledge technologists - who are flexible and analytical and who can be the driving force for innovation and growth. To achieve this India needs a flexible education system: basic education to provide the foundation for learning; secondary and tertiary education to develop core capabilities and core technical skills; and further means of achieving lifelong learning. The education system must be attuned to the new global environment by promoting creativity and improving the quality of education and training at all levels. Countries that have had the most rapid increases in educational attainment, as well as sustained economic growth, have upgraded education sequentially. In a globalized economy, a large pool of skilled workers is indispensable for attracting foreign direct investment. Developing skilled workers enhances the efficiency and flexibility of the labor market; skills bottlenecks are reduced, skilled workers are more easily absorbed into the economy, and their job mobility is improved. It is crucial to invest in quality secondary and tertiary education and in vocational education and training (VET) if India’s economy is to develop and remain competitive in world markets.

In the recent past, India has achieved the gross domestic product (GDP) growth of more than 6.5 per cent with just one per cent growth in employment. Most of the large industries have been shedding labour and the labour absorption capacity of the agriculture is low. The unorganized sector is growing at much higher rate than any other sector. However, the workers in unorganized sector seem to be the least educated and trained. The contribution of technically trained manpower to the economic growth and development is a well-accepted factor. The shortage of personnel with an education in industrial training will have an adverse impact on the state's economy, especially in the industrial sector. A vast body of literature exists to evince that technological change and dynamism in industry is positively related with the nature and extent of technically trained workforce engaged in a country’s industrial sector. In order to attain industrial and technological self-reliance, the Indian planners envisaged the development and building up of indigenous expertise and stock of technically trained manpower as an inalienable part of the state’s development strategy. As a sequel to this policy, a tremendous effort was made by the Government to create a massive infrastructure to train and built up locally groomed expertise and skilled manpower.

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