A Tree Computing Block Chain Protocol Crypto-Signature Model

A Tree Computing Block Chain Protocol Crypto-Signature Model

Cyrus Nourani (AFWMTS, Germany & TU Berlin AI, Germany)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 12
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1082-7.ch012

Abstract

This author has for the past decade developed a mathematical basis for product languages, at times with colleagues, applying agent crypto-signatures to authenticate business process models. This chapter is the newest application for what is at recent times called block chain. A new algebraic tree based public key cryptography techniques and algorithm for crypto-signatured block chain processing is presented. The techniques apply agent crypto-signatured algebras and block product language signatures for an agenda-based block chain protocol. An algorithm with a new public key computable trust model for signature tree block parties accomplishes the block chain goals.
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Introduction

The origins of blockchain are a bit nebulous. A person or group of people known by the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamura invented and released the tech in 2009 as a way to digitally and anonymously send payments between two parties without needing a third party to verify the transaction. It was initially designed to facilitate, authorize, and log the transfer of bitcoins and other cryptocurrencies. Cryptocurrencies are essentially just digital money, digital tools of exchange that use cryptography and the aforementioned blockchain technology to facilitate secure and anonymous transactions. There had been several iterations of cryptocurrency over the years, but Bitcoin truly thrust cryptocurrencies forward in the late 2000s. There are thousands of cryptocurrencies floating out on the market now. One of the biggest challenges that most distributed systems face is coming to a consensus. This problem is usually called “Byzantine General’s Problem (”. This authors group publications on agent cryptsignatures date back to 1990´s, (e.g. Nourani et.al. 1996,1998).

What is the Byzantine General’s Problem? imagine that there is a group of Byzantine generals and they want to attack a city. They are facing two very distinct problems: The generals and their armies are very far apart so centralized authority is impossible, which makes coordinated attack very tough. The city has a huge army and the only way that they can win is if they all attack at once. In order to make successful coordination, the armies on the left of the castle send a messenger to the armies on the right of the castle with a message that says “Action Wednesday.” However, suppose the armies on the right are not prepared for the attack and say, “NO. Action FRIDAY” and send back the messenger through the city back to the armies on the left. This is where we face a problem. A number of things can happen to the poor messenger. He could get captured, compromised, killed and replace with another messenger by the city. This would lead to the armies getting tampered information which may result in an uncoordinated attack and defeat. The chain is a huge network; how can you possibly trust them? If you were sending someone 4 Ether from your wallet, how would you know for sure that someone in the network isn’t going to tamper with it and change 4 to 40 Ether?

A blockchain is a distributed database, meaning that the storage devices for the database are not all connected to a common processor. It maintains a growing list of ordered records, called blocks. Each block has a timestamp and a link to a previous block. Cryptography ensures that users can only edit the parts of the blockchain that they “own” by possessing the private keys necessary to write to the file. It also ensures that everyone’s copy of the distributed blockchain is kept in synch. Imagine a digital medical record: each entry is a block. It has a timestamp, the date and time when the record was created. By design, the entry is not changeable retroactively, because the record of diagnosis, treatment, etc. has to be clear and unmodified. Only the doctor, who has one private key, and the patient, who has the other, can access the information, and then information is only shared when one of those users shares his or her private key with a third party — say, a hospital or specialist, on a blockchain for that medical database. Blockchains are secure databases by design. The concept was introduced in 2008, and then implemented for the first time in 2009 as part of the digital bitcoin currency, The blockchain serves as the public ledger for all bitcoin transactions. Satoshi Nakamoto, the creator of Bitcoin was able to bypass the Byzantine General’s problem by inventing the proof of work protocol. In this paper we develop an agent agenda-based processor for consensus-based block chain protocol management. This author group publications on agent computing models for economics models range from (Nourani 1992) to (Nourani-Schulte 2014). Here we have crypto-economics applications. Agent computing applications to microeconomics examples are on CS curricula since 2017. A host or references are included on the new block chain areas. (Gupta 2018) and (IGI Global Handbook -31) are new overviews to the cybersecurity areas considered.

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