Access to Information in the Republic of Macedonia: Between Transparency and Secrecy

Access to Information in the Republic of Macedonia: Between Transparency and Secrecy

Stojan Slaveski (Europian University, Macedonia) and Biljana Popovska (MoD, Macedonia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-8793-6.ch008


Certain information and personal data, held by the government, needs to be kept secret because its disclosure to the general public could jeopardize the operation of the state. On the other hand, the state should allow the public to have free access to all other state-held information. To ensure a balance between these two claims of modern democratic societies, there is a need to legally regulate this matter. The state should have a law on access to public information and a law that will regulate the classification, access to and storage of information which should be kept secret. This chapter analyzes the global experiences in regulating this matter, with a particular emphasis on the practice in the Republic of Macedonia.
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Critical Infrastructure Versus Critical Information Infrastructure

Critical infrastructure (CI) and critical information infrastructure protection have been a focus of attention in many countries in recent years. Many developed countries generally define their critical infrastructure in terms of the criticality of particular sectors or services to the safety and security of their society, government and economy. While countries widely use the term “critical infrastructure”, the term “critical information infrastructure” is less common in national policies, strategies and structures. However, “critical information infrastructure” has emerged as a somewhat neutral and general term in the international community although no formal attempt has been made to reach a common definition or understanding. The diversity of input across the different countries does not allow us for a single common formal definition. Most of the countries have formulated policy and developed good practices to safeguard the information systems and networks that can be considered as critical information infrastructure. However, there are different approaches to the problem (Auerswald, Branscomb, Porte, & Michel-Kerjan, 2005).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Security risk: Likelihood for security infraction of the classified information.

Security Clearance: A document confirming the eligibility of the legal entity or the natural person to have access to and use of classified information.

Public Information: Information in any given form, created and owned by the holder of information, i.e. owned only by the holders of information, according to his jurisdictions.

Need to Know: A principle according to which the user who has a requirement for access to classified information in order to perform his function or official tasks is determined.

Classified Information: Any information determined to require protection against unauthorized access or use and which has been so designated by a security classification.

Information: Any knowledge that can be communicated in any form.

Holders of Information: The organs of the state authorities and other organizations and institutions, which are determined by law, organs of the municipalities, organs of the city of Skopje, organs of the municipalities of the city of Skopje, public institutions and services, public enterprises, legal and physical entities who perform public jurisdictions and services of public interest, established by law.

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