Adaptive Primary School Design: Post-Pandemic Reuse Projects for Adana Former Archeology Museum

Adaptive Primary School Design: Post-Pandemic Reuse Projects for Adana Former Archeology Museum

Copyright: © 2024 |Pages: 25
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-3940-8.ch008
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This chapter explores the strategies for adapting existing buildings in a way that respects both cultural and environmental sustainability. It specifically focuses on the adaptive reuse of the Adana Former Archaeology Museum, exploring its transformation into a primary school in response to post-pandemic needs. The primary goal is to demonstrate the potential of adaptive reuse of heritage buildings for contemporary educational purposes while preserving their cultural essence. The methodology involves a teaching experiment (case study) with undergraduate interior design students, who develop various scenarios and spatial designs for the museum's transformation. This case study offers practical insights into the challenges and opportunities of adaptive reuse in architecture and interior design. The chapter highlights adaptive reuse's major implications for educational leaders, emphasizing the importance of creating dynamic, flexible, and adaptable learning environments.
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The current global pandemic has impacted the functionality of numerous building types. While there have been substantial efforts to adapt existing buildings to this new and unexpected situation, flexibility has become a main concept in the design and development phases of architectural and interior design projects. Compared to certain building typologies that fulfill basic public needs, such as hospitals, supermarkets, banks, and other public service facilities, the adaptation of educational buildings to the pandemic situation has been relatively slower.

In the context of Turkey, when adapting educational facilities to pandemic conditions, certain factors presented more significant challenges for adaptation. These included the number of teachers, the student population, the overall count of educational buildings, and the physical sizes of these buildings. The rapid growth in student numbers at primary and middle school levels was not matched by an equivalent increase in the availability of teachers and school infrastructures. The physical limitations of the buildings, influenced by aspects such as land area, courtyard boundaries, and the high population density of their surrounding neighborhoods, made them particularly challenging to modify (Güzelci et al., 2020).

Confronted with such challenges, recent research, including those by the author and colleagues has discussed the adaptation of educational buildings to post-pandemic reuse (Al-Delfi & Salman, 2022; Güzelci et al., 2020; Güzelci et al., 2021; İsmailoğlu & Kulak Torun, 2022; Putra, 2021; Yatmo & Atmodiwirjo, 2022). These studies primarily examine a range of educational facilities, including primary schools, secondary schools, and universities, which continue to function as educational spaces. Unlike existing studies, this chapter focuses on the adaptation and adaptive reuse of a building that has lost its original function.

Within the scope of this chapter, the Adana Former Archaeology Museum, a registered building currently functioning as a marriage registry office, was chosen as the site. The design brief involved the adaptive reuse of the museum building for its transformation into a primary school. This design brief was assigned to interior architecture students in an undergraduate-level design studio. The design process, which was conducted in the recent past under pandemic conditions, primarily utilized remote education as the mode of communication (Figure 1).

Figure 1.

Poster of the Interior Architecture Design Studio III-IV by Aycan Kızılkaya


This chapter is structured as follows: it begins by providing a background on key concepts, such as adaptive reuse, post-pandemic reuse, flexibility, and adaptability. Following this, the chapter presents and discusses the four experimental steps conducted in the interior architecture design studio: site analysis, theme analysis, scenario development, and project development. Lastly, the concluding section summarizes the main findings and their implications.



Adaptive reuse involves the transformation of an existing building or site while retaining its historical character and essence. This approach to sustainable development aids in preserving cultural heritage, minimizing waste, and fostering urban regeneration. In the fields of architecture and urban planning, adaptive reuse has gained widespread acceptance as a cost-effective alternative to new construction, as evidenced by various studies (Bassett, 1997; Lo Faro & Miceli, 2019; Vardopoulos, 2023; Wong, 2016). Additionally, adaptive reuse entails the repurposing of historical buildings for uses different from their original purposes. This practice can range from transforming a factory into a loft apartment complex to converting a sport complex into a hotel (Lanz & Pendlebury, 2022; Patil et al., 2021).

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