Affective Human-Computer Interaction

Affective Human-Computer Interaction

Nik Thompson (Murdoch University, Australia) and Tanya McGill (Murdoch University, Australia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-5888-2.ch364
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Background

Computer usage has traditionally been regarded as a rational activity in which emotions are not involved. This view, however, has been changing as the importance of emotions in all aspects of human thinking, activity and interaction is becoming more apparent. Human interactions do not just include those with other people, but also with their surroundings, including inanimate objects. One such object that has a big role in the day to day life of many people is the computer.

It is not uncommon for a person to spend more hours in a day interacting with a computer than face to face with other people. For this reason it is important to design computers that are user-friendly and easy to use (Preece et al., 1994). One important aspect of this drive towards user-friendliness is that the user should be able to use his or her natural way of interacting rather than having to learn new ways of working (Norman, 1988). The goal of improving the interaction between users and computers requires that emotions be taken into account in this interaction.

The field of HCI has greatly matured over the last several decades since the first conference on human factors in computing systems was held in the early 1980’s. Since this time the emphasis within HCI has shifted from a focus on trained systems operators, to analyzing how technology influences the general user. To this end, there has been a substantial amount of attention devoted to the concept of usability, as well as the role of the user in the development of successful interfaces. Usability is simply defined as “the extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specific goals with effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction in a specified context of use” (International Organization for Standardization, 2010). This broad definition sets the stage for the fact that usability is a complex construct that can be influenced by a large number of external factors including context or environment.

In the early 80s, the role of a HCI specialist would be to evaluate interface components such as menus or terminology. As the field progressed, and the specialists came to realize the broader applicability of their work, new directions and specializations were created. The term “user-centered” is extensively used in the field of HCI (Karat & Karat, 2003) when describing approaches to building usable systems. For user-centered design, the main focus is that the needs of the user are used as a way to inform design (Vredenburg, Isensee, & Righi, 2001). This perspective is also sometimes referred to as human-centered design, or human centered computing (HCC). HCC broadly describes the methodology that would be applied to any field that uses computers in any form where users directly interact with them (Jaimes, Sebe, & Gatica-Perez, 2006). Thus HCC aims to integrate human sciences (such as cognitive and affective) into the existing body of computer science and HCI knowledge with a human focus throughout the lifecycle. HCC is said to incorporate social and cognitive sciences more closely than traditional HCI (Foley, 2006).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Affective Human-Computer Interaction: Affective HCI incorporates the communication of affective state information as an interface modality. This aims to enrich the quality of interaction and permit the user to employ more intuitive methods of communication.

User-Centered Design: A type of user interface and interaction design in which the main focus is that the needs of the user are used as a way to inform design. This often involves a participatory or cooperative design approach in which designers and users work collaboratively.

Psychophysiology: Research suggests that all underlying affective states have some physiological manifestation that may be subtle, but potentially observable. The field of psychophysiology bridges the domains of psychology and physiology with the study of how these aspects of human experience interact.

Wearable Computers: Any portable, miniature devices that are computer based and worn by the user as part of their clothing or accessories. Increasing miniaturization and widespread use of portable computers (including smartphones) makes this a viable and promising domain in which affective computer interfaces may be developed.

Human-Computer Interaction (HCI): The study of how users interact with computer based devices. This includes techniques for assessing elements of the effectiveness or ease of use of an interface as well the development of more intuitive and natural interfaces.

Affective Computing: Defined by Picard (1997) AU12: The citation "Picard (1997)" matches multiple references. Please add letters (e.g. "Smith 2000a"), or additional authors to the citation, to uniquely match references and citations. as “computing that relates to, arises from, or deliberately influences emotions.”

Affective State: This term refers to the experience of feeling the underlying emotional state. The description often distinguishes between the more diffused longer term experiences (termed moods) and the more focused short term experiences (termed emotions).

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