An Innovative Approach to Vehicle Electrification for Smart Cities

An Innovative Approach to Vehicle Electrification for Smart Cities

Promiti Dutta (Columbia University, USA), Albert Boulanger (Columbia University, USA), Roger Anderson (Columbia University, USA) and Leon Wu (Columbia University, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-8282-5.ch010
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Abstract

Vehicles, both personal and commercial, have become ubiquitous forms of transportation in the developed world. The auto industry is amidst a technological transformation in identifying alternative sources of energy to power vehicles due to two driving forces: environmental pollution prevention and depletion of fuel resources. This driver for developing “smarter” solutions to create a “smarter planet” is crucial to advancing the science behind electric vehicles (EVs). EVs have been in existence since the mid-19th century, and electric locomotion has been the commonplace in many other vehicle types such as trains. The focus of this chapter is to discuss the feasibility of EVs in smart cities. In particular, the chapter explores the types of EVs, advantages and challenges faced by EVs to penetrate the market, and to outline state-of-the-art research and technologies that are driving the creation of newer and better EVs for adoption in the smart cities of tomorrow.
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Types Of Electric Vehicles

Electric vehicles are referred to as green vehicles by some as a solution to the internal combustion engine vehicle for carbon emissions. Electric vehicles originated in the mid-19th century when electricity was one of the preferred methods for motor vehicle propulsion. An electric vehicle uses one or more electric motors for propulsion. There are many kinds of electric vehicles such as electric cars, electric trains, electric boats, scooters, etc. Electric vehicles are grouped into three main categories as described in Table 1.

Table 1.
Comparison of types of electric vehicle
Car TypeGasolineBatteryElectric Charge
Hybrid
Plug-in Hybrid
Battery Electric Vehicle

Key Terms in this Chapter

Original Equipment Manufacturer: (OEM) In the context of automotive parts, designates a replacement part made by the same manufacturer as the original part.

Vehicle-to-Vehicle: (V2V) Describes a system in which electric vehicles can communicate to each other to sell demand response services by delivering electricity to each other.

Vehicle-to-Building: (V2B) Describes a system in which electric vehicles can communicate with a building to sell demand response services by either delivering electricity into the building or by throttling their charging rate.

Vehicle-to-Grid: (V2G) Describes a system in which electric vehicles can communicate with the power grid to sell demand response services by either delivering electricity into the grid or by throttling their charging rate.

Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment: (EVSE) Defined as the conductors, including the ungrounded, grounded, and equipment grounding conductors, the electric vehicle connectors, attachment plugs, and all other fittings, devices, power outlets or apparatuses installed specifically for the purpose of delivering energy from the premises wiring to the electric vehicle by the 1996 NEC and California Article 625.

Machine-to-Machine: (M2M) Broad term that refers to technologies that allow both wireless and wired systems to communicate with other devices of the same type.

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