An Overview of Web 2.0 and Its Technologies and Their Impact in the Modern Era

An Overview of Web 2.0 and Its Technologies and Their Impact in the Modern Era

Reinaldo Padilha França (State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Brazil), Ana Carolina Borges Monteiro (State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Brazil), Rangel Arthur (Faculty of Technology (FT), State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Brazil) and Yuzo Iano (State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Brazil)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-3756-5.ch005
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Abstract

Web 2.0 is the evolution of the web. Seen as a new and second movement of access to information through the world wide web, Web 2.0 brings interactivity and collaboration as the main keys to its functioning. It is now possible and simpler and faster to send information at any time, by any user connected to the internet. The ease of uploading information, images, and videos on the Web 2.0 is due to the expansion of resources and codes, allowing anyone to be able to act naturally and take their own content to the internet. As the data and information shared daily is almost infinite, the search engines act even more intuitively and bring only results tailored to each user. Therefore, this chapter aims to provide an updated review and overview of Web 2.0, addressing its evolution and fundamental concepts, showing its relationship, as well as approaching its success with a concise bibliographic background, categorizing and synthesizing the potential of technology.
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Introduction

Web 2.0 is a term used to refer to the second generation of communities and services offered on the Internet, having as its concept the Web and through applications based on social networks and information technology. The term does not refer to updating the technical specifications, but to a change in the way it is perceived by users and developers, that is, the environment of interaction and participation that today encompasses many languages (Bradley, 2007, Deitel & Deitel, 2007, McLoughlin & Alam, 2019).

Web 2.0 is the move to the internet as a platform, and an understanding of the rules to succeed in this new platform, such a concept has a fundamental rule in harnessing collective intelligence. It is conceptualized in the essentially online context. Thus, activities that were previously done offline, with the aid of traditional programs sold in specialized stores, are now done online, using free tools open to all users. With it has increased the speed and ease of use of various applications, accounting for a significant increase in existing content on the Internet (Kroski, 2008, Shuen, 2018).

The idea of Web 2.0 is to make the online environment more dynamic and make users collaborate for content organization. With the advent of Web 2.0, many sites are no longer rigid and static structures, but platforms where people can contribute their knowledge for the benefit of other users and visitors. That's because Web 2.0 brought with it collaborative content creation software, social networking, blogging, and information technology (Berger & Trexler, 2010, Sankar & Bouchard, 2009, McLoughlin & Alam, 2019).

As a result, users are no longer just viewers and can interact, produce their own content, and communicate with others. Thus, Web 2.0 enhances and facilitates knowledge acquisition, having an impact on education (Vickery & Wunsch-Vincent, 2007, Bizer et al, 2007, Ellis & Kent, 2019).

One of the principles of this evolution of the Internet is that content must be opened under creative commons licenses, the copyright of which allows a user to repost, alter, or collaborate. This is because Web 2.0 aims to generate communities, either through a social network or comments on news sites and blogs. With this, the information technology that allows such interaction between users also brought significant changes in the way Marketing is done (Lee & McLoughlin, 2011, Rigby, 2008, Ellis & Kent, 2019). One downside is that these days people don't store information so easily and search the internet for all the information already processed, which doesn't stimulate critical thinking.

One of the biggest news that changes on the internet have brought to marketing is that companies had to learn to interact with their audience. This is because communication is no longer a one-way street and now the consumer not only receives the message but also gives their opinion about it. Besides, information technology has also brought with it a new way of advertising: through online advertisements and search engine placement (Solomon & Schrum, 2007, Theimer, 2009, Kompen et al, 2019).

With this, the evolution of the internet introduced us to Performance Marketing, that is, when a company hires this type of service but only pays for the corresponding result. Finally, technological advances have also made it possible to develop cross-media strategies: when an action goes beyond the online environment and continues offline. That is, Digital Marketing as we know it today was only possible thanks to the evolution of Web 2.0 (Solomon & Schrum, 2007, Theimer, 2009, Kompen et al, 2019).

Key Terms in this Chapter

JavaScript: It is the language that will make this information receive some behaviors, for example when creating a submenu or controlling something that appears and disappears on the screen, it is the layer in the programming that adds dynamic behaviors, it is this technology that acts when the user is in contact with the interface of a page that can at any time perform an action that results in behavior on the page, that is, as a dynamic behavior obtained when filling out a form, the user misses the email and is notified by the site.

Web: Is the term used to refer to a set of connected computers that can exchange data and messages. This is possible through a common protocol, which allows several users—private individuals, cultural bodies, libraries, or military institutes—to join in the same access.

AJAX: Is a technique of Web development that allows the creation of more interactive applications, one of the main objectives is to make the responses of Web pages faster by exchanging small amounts of information with the Web server. It has the philosophy of loading and rendering a page, using script resources running on the client-side, searching, and loading data in the background without the need to reload the page.

Web 2.0: It was the Web that gained new tools that made it more dynamic, starting phase 2.0, being marked by the 2000s with the sharing of information, where users invaded it with the production of video, text and photo content, considering the era of blogs, YouTube channels, and photo sharing networks, which has increased virtual interaction between people. It is a more intuitive and interactive Web platform, with the emergence and culmination of social networks, and video sharing sites, making it not only an entertainment platform, but also a business platform, as several companies have already started to operate virtually.

Internet: The internet is a worldwide network that aims to interconnect computers to provide the user with access to various information, and is thus called the world wide web. It has revolutionized world communication by allowing, the conversation between users thousands of kilometers away.

Information: It is a set of data that aims to reduce uncertainty or deepen the knowledge on a subject of interest based on what already exists. It constitutes a message about a particular phenomenon or event. Information makes it possible to solve problems and make decisions, taking into account that its rational use is the basis of knowledge.

XML: It is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents, it is a set of codes that can be applied when reading data or texts made by computers or people, providing a platform to define markup elements and generate a custom language. Working to define how certain content will be viewed on the screen or how the data will be distributed, and this internal coding is done through the use of markers or tags.

API: They are a type of “bridge” that connect applications, which can be used for the most varied types of business, by companies of different market niches or sizes, ie, they are a way of integrating systems, enabling benefits such as the security of data, ease of exchange between information with different programming languages and monetization of accesses. They are invisible to the average user, who sees only the interface of software and applications.

CSS: It is the language that will make this information beautiful, it is the layer in programming that shapes the elements of HTML, it is a language of stylization, formatting, determining the style of a text, a page with a certain background color or a block wrapped around a border and present it as a new shape in the browser.

Web 1.0: It was the first version of the Internet (called ARPANET) that emerged shortly after the Cold War, in the 1960s, with the initial purpose that served the US military objectives, providing information sharing, featuring online content delivery, in short, one of its milestones was e-mail, in 1969, the existence of the Internet Protocol (IP) and HyperText Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTP), providing data traffic by means such as radio, optical fiber and satellite (currently); sending encrypted information and commercial transactions via the Internet. The internet pages were simple, with mostly one-sided information and almost no interaction. The aim was only to discover information, the user being a mere spectator.

HTML: It is the language that will display the information, in addition to displaying the information, it gives meaning, since this is important because some search engine systems will read your page, they need to understand what is each element in it and the that each of these elements means.

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