Analysis of Black-Hole Attack With Its Mitigation Techniques in Ad-hoc Network

Analysis of Black-Hole Attack With Its Mitigation Techniques in Ad-hoc Network

Ayasha Malik, Siddharth Gautam, Naghma Khatoon, Nikhil Sharma, Ila Kaushik, Santosh Kumar
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-5068-7.ch011
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In wired and wireless communication, providing security is extremely important. It is a very challenging issue. But the flying evolution in communication technology has triggered to sturdy research interest in wireless networks. The characteristics of wireless networks make this issue even more challenging. In Ad-hoc networks, there is a huddle of autonomous nodes, which dynamically form a temporary multi-hopped, peer-to-peer radio network, without any use of predefined infrastructure. These nodes are generally mobile in nature, and to connect these nodes, the connectionless links are used. These nodes have the potential to self-organize, self-configure, and self-arrangement. Ad-hoc networks do not have fixed structure due to their dynamic nature. Ad-hoc networks are inherently prone to a number of security threats. Lack of fixed infrastructure, use of wireless link for communication, and mobility of nodes make Ad-hoc networks extremely receptive to hostile attacks, blackhole attack being one among them, which can be implemented effortlessly.
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A wireless network is a network that uses wireless data connection between computers to create nodes. Wireless communication is a method by which the cost of wireless communication is reduced Wireless medium plays a vital role in providing real-world communication by allowing users to take information and service electronically or digitally, despite their topographical location (Fazeldehkordi, 2016). There are two types of wireless connection/communication: infrastructure-based (contains access point) and infrastructure-less (without an access point). MANET is a network that lacks infrastructure (Jamshidi et al., 2018). The wireless connections used for interconnection may be terrestrial microwave, satellite communication, radio, and spectrum spread technologies, optical free-space communication, or many radio communication technologies used in cellular and pc systems. Figure 1 shows the classification of wireless network.

Figure 1.

Classification of wireless network


Wireless networks are classified into two categories and then classified into two categories as shown in Figure1. Wireless single-hop network- when there is a one-to-one mapping between nodes. It is further divided into the wireless (with the access point) network based on infrastructure and wireless networks (without an access point) (Liu et al., 2019). Wireless multi-hop network- when the mapping between nodes is one-to-many. A multi-hop wireless network is also divided into wireless infrastructure-based networks and wireless infrastructure-less networks as a single-hop wireless network (Bhushan & Sahoo, 2020) . Table 1 summarizes diverse types of wireless networks.

Table 1.
Example of wireless networks
          Type of Network          Example
Infrastructure-based Single hop wireless network  Wi-Fi, Cellular network
Infrastructure-less Single hop wireless network  Wi-Fi hotspot, Bluetooth
Infrastructure-based Multi-hop wireless network  Wireless mesh network, Sensor network
Infrastructure-less Multi-hop wireless network  Ad-hoc network, WANET

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