Analysis of Climate Prediction and Climate Change in Pakistan Using Data Mining Techniques

Analysis of Climate Prediction and Climate Change in Pakistan Using Data Mining Techniques

Soobia Saeed (Department of Software Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia), N. Z. Jhanjhi (School of Computing and IT (SoCIT), Taylor's University, Malaysia), Mehmood Naqvi (Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering Technology, Mohawk College of Applied Arts and Technology, Canada), Vasaki Ponnusamy (Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia) and Mamoona Humayun (College of Computer and Information Sciences, Jouf University, Saudi Arabia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-2803-7.ch016
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Abstract

Weather forecasting is a significant meteorological task and has arisen in the last century from a rational and revolutionary point of view among the most difficult problems. The authors are researching the use of information mining techniques in this survey to measure maximum temperature, precipitation, dissipation, and wind speed. This was done using vector help profiles, decision tree, and weather data obtained in Pakistan in 2015 and 2019. For the planning of workbook accounts, an information system for meteorological information was used. The presentations of these calculations considered using standard implementing steps as well as the estimate that gave the best results for generating disposal rules for intermediate environment variables. Likewise, a prophetic network model for the climate outlook program, contradictory results, and true climate information for the projected periods have been created. The results show that with sufficient information on cases, data mining strategies can be used to estimate the climate and environmental change that it focuses on.
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Introduction

The weather forecast has been among the most difficult logically and mechanically in the last century. This is the result of two elements: First, it is used in some human exercises, in addition to the feature provided by the various innovative developments that have been identified directly with this solid field of examination, similar to the evolution of calculation and change in estimation Frameworks. Accurate forecasting is one of the great difficulties facing the world of meteorology worldwide. Since ancient days and weather, expectations have been highlighted among the most interesting and wonderful space. Researchers have tried to estimate meteorological characteristics using different methods, and some of these strategies are more accurate than others.

The weather forecast involves predicting how the current environment will change. Use land visualizations, ship and aircraft visualizations, radio signals, Doppler radar and satellites, current weather conditions are collected. This data is sent to meteorological centers that gather, isolate and turn the information into a variety of tables, maps, and graphs. Quick and creative computers on surface and air maps share a large amount of visualization. With the aid of meteorologists reporting any mistakes, personal computers draw lines on charts. An analysis is called the final guide. Mapping computers and projecting what it eventually looks like. The climate calculation of a machine is regarded as a forecast of numerical weather.

Weather prediction has attracted much attention for its numerous exploration groups, as it helps defend human life and wealth. Estimating taking into account temperature and forecasts are crucial for agribusiness and therefore for traders within warehouse markets. Service organizations use temperature meters to evaluate demand in the coming days. External workouts are greatly reduced due to heavy rain, snow and thermal sensation, and guesses can be used to organize workouts on these occasions, organize them in advance and stay alive. Climate prediction has become a gradual necessity for researchers, farmers, livestock, global food, security and failures management and related societies to understand the natural wonders of organizing and organizing the future. Climate change is a significant and permanent change and the objective transition of climate examples over periods ranging from decades to a large number of years. Environmental change today is synonymous with human and abnormal climate change. However, in experimental journals, a change in global temperature indicates an increase in surface temperature, while environmental change involves serious atmospheric dedication and everything else that will affect the expansion of incubation gas amounts. Climate changes are obtained from changes in intermediaries, which are signs that reflect the atmosphere, for example, vegetation, ice centers, neuromorphology, ocean level change and icy geography. Part of this is useful for improving natural disasters, performing agricultural work, development, sea route, forest developments and protection purposes. Plane stations organize the primary airport organization in light of nearby weather conditions that have light parameters that can change in a short time. These parameters, for example, fog, precipitation level, etc. It can be very dangerous to flight safety and expense (S. Zainudin et.al, 2016).

To predict weather by numerical means, meteorologists have created inaccurate weather models using scientific and mathematical terms to describe how air temperature, weight, and humidity change after for a while. Mathematical data is modified on a computer and improved information on current barometric conditions on the computer. The computer analyzes mathematical data to decide how distinctive climate changes will change in the next few minutes. The computer re-applies this method over and over using one cycle performance as information for the next cycle. For some time to search later (12, 24, 36, 48, 72, or 120 hours), the computer prints its verified data. Then divide the information and draw the lines for the expected position of the different weight tires. The latest computer guesswork diagram is known as a graph or predictive program. The predictor uses the software as a weather forecast guide. There are many environmental models that talk to the atmosphere, and they all translate air in a slightly different way (A. M. Bagirov et.al, 2017).

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