Analysis of Serbian Honey Production and Exports

Analysis of Serbian Honey Production and Exports

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2762-6.ch005
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Abstract

In this chapter, the emphasis of research was put on an analysis of production and turnover of honey on the global market. After reading this chapter, readers will be familiar with volume of the world and European production of honey. They will find out the geographic structure of honey production in Serbia, i.e., will understand how the increase in number of hives and the volume of honey production affect the export potential. Readers will find out which factors operate restrictively on the development of honey sector in Serbia. They will understand the role of increasing amounts and values of honey export and will notice the correlation with the positive index values of comparative advantage of honey export from Serbia to the international market. The conclusions of numerous authors, who were engaged in honey sector in their countries and especially the issues and problems of the Serbian honey sector, will be presented to them. These issues and problems haven't been comprehensively researched until now.
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Introduction

Around 1.2 million tons of honey produces annually worldwide, of which one third in overturn on international market. Chinese production dominates and amounts approximately 361.33 thousand tons and a share of 24.57% of world production. In second place after the production of honey is the European Union with an average production of 197.76, then Turkey with 79.98 thousand tons and share of 5.4%. In fourth place after the production of honey is Argentina with the average production of 78.62 thousand tons and a share of 5.34% (in period 2001-2013).

According to data of experts, the annual consumption of all kinds of sugar shouldn't exceed 38 kg per person. In Russia, this amount is 41 kg, in U.S.A. around 60 kg, and in both countries a share of honey in that annual sugar consumption is the same and amounts only 0.8%. Industry in U.S.A. consumes more than 50% of total honey (domestic and imported), and the same is with other developed countries. There evaluates that Russian industry now consumes only around 5% of honey which is manufactured in the state (and it uses sugar and artificial honey), which is very low and inflicts damage to beekeeping, by not having contribution to honey purchase. Germans are the biggest manufacturers of honey, with annual consumption of 88.000 tons, i.e. in average 1,100 gr per capita per year. The consumption of honey increases in developing countries, while it has stabilized in high-developed countries and maintained at the same level. Thus, the production of honey in U.S.A. amounts around 0.50 kg for fifty years back, thanks to an active advertisement. The production of honey declines, for example, in Great Britain (and in some other developed countries).

European demand for honey is still very strong and exporter constantly seek for new suppliers, therefore demand is higher than supply. The European production is not sufficient to settle domestic needs, which represents a chance for exporters in developing countries. As it was previously stated, EU was the biggest world producer of honey and was responsible for over 20% of total world production. China, USA and Turkey are other great consumers of honey in the world.

In this chapter the authors were dealing with the production and turnover of honey. At the very beginning, readers, after a brief introduction, were introduced to structure and dynamics of the world honey production, the consumption characteristics, depending on consumers’ aptitudes. Most of the text in this study is the analysis of Serbian honey sector: volume of production, number of hives and a yield per hive, aiming to consider problems and initiate their resolution. After the recognized production potentials, the analysis was directed to export structure. In detail review of export/import, expressed through the amount, value and unit price is of special importance. Finally, there was presented the coverage of import by export and the trade balance. According to those indicators, the authors have singled out ten countries which import Serbian honey. Available data, after already consistent methodology, served to present the comparative advantage of honey export. The level of comparative advantage of honey export from Serbia to the world market was measured by RXA, RTA, ln RXA, RC and RCA and was pointed out to problems which Serbian manufacturers meet. Research of honey production worldwide was conducted for the period 2001-2013 according to EUROSTAT and FAOSTAT data. In analysis of honey production in Serbia and AP Vojvodina was comprised the period from 2001 to 2015, while data were collected by ABOV (Association of Beekeeping Organizations of Vojvodina). The level of export comparative advantage was measured for ten-year-lasting period, i.e. from 2006 to 2015, according to data of ITC and UN Comtrade. The empirical study was deepened by other authors’ results with similar studies, where the authors tried to define the correlation between the export of honey and the comparative advantage of export. Chapters, discussions and suggestions of future research represent a special contribution, due to the fact that the recommendations of authors from different economic, political, cultural and religious beliefs are sublimated in them.

In this research were used the following formulas: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. In detail interpretation of all formulas can be found enclosed at the end of the book in the Appendix.

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