Antennas for IoT Application: An RF and Microwave Aspect of IoT

Antennas for IoT Application: An RF and Microwave Aspect of IoT

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1253-1.ch009
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Under the umbrella of 5G there are many technology projects (e.g., internet of things, in-vehicle communication, smart cities, e-health systems, etc.). To understand the concept of IoT, the authors first understand the revolution of technological networks and later discuss what IoT is, the importance of antennas, and future vision.
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The diverse ecosystem of Internet of Things (IoT) brings along uncountable end-devices utilizing all sorts of radio modules, sensors/actuators, batteries/cells, MEMS devices, energy harvest techniques, and on top of all, antennas. The choice and design of the antenna is application dependent and varies depending on the frequency range, transmission strength and availability of space. Unlike the high-throughput wireless networks such as 5G, IEEE 802.11ax and WiGig etc. that utilize vast continuous spectrum space, IoT network smartly transmits/receivers small chunks of data in an IoT network in various network topologies like star, mesh and/or point-to-point. Most of the times, the job of establishing such types of links is accomplished by some common and relatively less complex types of omni-directional antennas such as wire antennas, rubber duck, patch, whip, PCB and on-chip antenna structures. Several IoT development kits and platforms such as Arduino GSM and Qualcomm IoE make use of similar antennas structures for GPS, Bluetooth and Wifi communication. Some applications such as Medical Body Area Networks (MBAN) and wearable electronics also require antennas to be low-profile and conformal to the surface of the device. This persuades the need of developing antennas specific to end-device and tailored to meet specialized applications requirements. Antennas for IoT can either be categorized according to their bands of operation or the application; Unlicensed ISM bands e.g. frequencies around 2.4 GHz are more common in IoT development platforms. Whereas, some applications also include antennas for licensed bands such as Avionics applications. The table below highlights few antennas frequently used in IoT applications with their frequency bands.

Table 1
Frequency bands and IoT applications
ApplicationTechnologyFrequency band
Smart homes/Smart buildingsWifi2.4 GHz,
GPS1575.42 MHz, 1227.6 MHz, 1176.45 MHz
Zigbee915 MHz, 2.4 GHz
Z-wave2.4 GHz
Bluetooth2.4 GHz
ISA 100.11a2.4 GHz
Smart Agriculture, Smart citiesLoRa433 MHz, 868 MHz, 915 MHz
Sigfox868 MHz, 902 MHz
MedicalMBAN/WBAN IEEE 802.15.6400 MHz, 800 MHz, 900 MHz, 2.36 GHz, 2.4 GHz
Avionics (intra-com)WAIC4.2 GHz, 4.4 GHz

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