Antidiabetic Activity (Anti-Hyperglycemic Activity, Anti-Hyperlipidemic Activity)/Agents From Medicinal Plants

Antidiabetic Activity (Anti-Hyperglycemic Activity, Anti-Hyperlipidemic Activity)/Agents From Medicinal Plants

Manish Singh Sansi (National Dairy Research Institute, India), Daraksha Iram (National Dairy Research Institute, India), Kapil Singh Narayan (National Dairy Research Institute, India), Sandeep Kumar (National Dairy Research Institute, India), Om Prakash (National Dairy Research Institute, India) and Dipanjan Misra (National Dairy Research Institute, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-2094-9.ch002

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease caused by inherited or acquired deficiency in insulin secretion and by decreased insulin secretion by the organ. Insulin deficiency causes the DM. Synthetic drugs are widely used in the treatment of diabetes, but they have some side effects. The antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipedemic effects of the plants are related to their ability to maintain pancreatic function. Medicinal plants constituents such as glycosides, alkaloids, terpenoids, and flavonoids mitigate DM. B. ciliata inhibits the α-glucosidase and α-amylase. Cinnamon extracts improve insulin receptor function by activating insulin receptor kinase and inhibiting insulin receptor phosphatase, which lead to an increase in insulin sensitivity. Morinda lucida also had the highest antioxidant activity, and it also inhibited the α-glucosidase. Many plants have also been shown to antihyperlipedemic effects. Finally, it can be concluded that medicinal plants have that ability to treat or prevent DM.
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Introduction

Diabetes is the metabolic disease of carbohydrates, proteins and fats, and a prolonged disease that increases when the pancreas is not able in a function to synthesize insulin, or the physique can't create perfect use of the insulin it produces (Kooti et al., 2016). Insulin is the hormone which is the synthesized by the pancreas that functions as a key to transport glucose from the foods into the cells to release energy for body functions. All the carbohydrate ingredients are breakdown into glucose in the blood. Insulin also helps to glucose get into the cells (Kumar et al., 2011). Diabetes mellitus is not now a disease alternatively is the a group of metabolic disorders characterised by way of prolonged hyperglycemia, succeeding from failings in the secretion of insulin, increase thirst, extend ketonuria and ketonemia, urinary output are the collective signs of DM (Andrade-Cetto & Wiedenfeld, 2004). The estimated range of the diabetic patients 171 million globally in the 2000 is likely to be expand at least 366 million till the year 2030 (Shinde et al., 2014). Over the long-standing high level of glucose are associated with injury to the physique and the failure of a tissues and organs. Though there are the range of procedures to decrease the patients of diabetes and its secondary complications, many desired natural formulation are there to reduce the cost.

Types of DM

The β-cell imperfections and the insulin resistance in the pancreas lead to the progress of 4 main types of DM.

Type-1 Diabetes

This is now denoted that, the (IDDM) Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus or the immune-mediated diabetes. In this case very little or no insulin produced. It is reason with the aid of autoimmune response which assaults the insulin-producing β-cells (Nazarian-Samani et al., 2018). This is hardly brought about due to mutation in the HLA the chromosome locus is 6p21 generally known as IDDM1 (Ali et al., 2006). Type-1 diabetes can have an effect on people at whichever age, however generally develops in the children or adults, young peoples. This type of diabetes the patients want injections of insulin daily to control the blood glucose levels (Shori, 2015).

These are most common a symptom of the type-1 diabetes includes: increase the dry mouth and thirsting; sudden weight loss; regular of urination; tiredness and Lack of the energy; continual hunger, unclear of the vision

Type-2 Diabetes

The Type-2 diabetes is the moreover known as the Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM). It is shows, that insulin resistance and low insulin excretion and debts, ~90% of situations of the type-2 diabetes. T2D generally takes region later the age of 40 years, The T2D is the most prevalent types of diabetes, and the numbers of the mostly ~90% of all the diabetes cases. Because the insulin can't work properly, and the blood glucose ranges keep rising, and releasing extra insulin (Apostolidis et al.,2007). The many risk factors have been related with the type-2 diabetes and include: family history of the diabetes; overweight, harmful diets; physical indolence; increasing the age; increase blood pressure; impaired glucose tolerance (IGT); reduced nutrition during the pregnancy. The signs of type-2 diabetes are alike to those of type-1 diabetes are includes: dry mouth and excessive thirst; regular urination; tiredness and lack of energy; low healing wounds; unclear vision

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