Application of Geospatial Mashups in Web GIS for Tourism Development

Application of Geospatial Mashups in Web GIS for Tourism Development

Somnath Chaudhuri (Maldives National University, Maldives) and Nilanjan Ray (Adamas University, India)
Copyright: © 2018 |Pages: 16
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2255-3.ch297
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Abstract

This paper examines current development in Web GIS with the implementation of Geospatial Mashup technologies, such as Google Map in the context of map Mashups, and presents a classification of map Mashups and their application in tourism management and promotion. On the Web GIS context, Mashup is the process of merging multiple sources of data, both spatial and non-spatial, into a single integrated spatial display. It is about extracting spatial data from a non-spatial source and combining with other spatial data and finally displaying it on a map. This paper demonstrates that Geospatial Mashup has great potential to facilitate and widen the rapid development of the future web mapping technology in Web GIS in tourism development. It also highlights on the basic architecture and working principles of Map Mashups in context to tourism management. The final section of this research paper emphasizes on some issues and limitations inherent to the current Mashup technologies like privacy protection, copyright issues etc. which need to be worked out before its wider adoption.
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Introduction

Tourism is defined by the World Tourism Organisation (NSCB, 2004), as the act travelling for the purpose of recreation and the provision of services for this act. Currently, tourism industry is one of the fastest growing industries all over the world. This smokeless industry is basically a kind of service industry, as it renders service to the tourists and all other supporting industries related to tourism like, hotel industry, transport industry etc. This business involves many socio-economic activities like promotion and advertising tourist spots and destinations, providing effective transport facility, fooding-lodging, entertainment etc. At the same time when the tourism industry is flourishing it helps in socio-economic development of those tourist destinations. It also helps in strengthening the economical status of the country by earning foreign currencies without exporting national wealth. So, it is obvious that if this industry becomes more effective and efficient, it will definitely be the major source of revenue and will take a leading role in the overall economic development of the nation. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can lead tourism to emerge as a new mantra for alternative economic development (Buhalis, 1998). Information Technology breaks the geographical boundaries so it is shared to the global audiences. Information Technology integrates between tourism product and requirement of the tourists. Due to changes in tourists or visitors behavior, the tourism market is becoming more segmented with each potential tourist belonging to a number of market segments (Cheng et al., 2002). Tourist operators need to be aware of these changes and be equipped to respond or better still, take a proactive approach. Technological revolution during 1990s brought with it new opportunities and challenges for the tourism industries. Technology has become fundamental to the ability of the global tourism industry to operate effectively and competitively. Information technology is being rapidly diffused throughout the tourism industry and that no player will escape from information technologies impacts. These technological innovations started in the 1970s when the main airlines set up CRSs (Computerized Reservation Systems), with the strategic aim of building a global distribution network for their products. Connecting travel agencies to the CRSs set off a process of distribution automation involving an ever-increasing number of tour operators, carriers, and car hire firms, individual hotels, hotel chains, and other hospitality firms. Geographical Information System, an ICT tool has been extensively used for tourism promotion and management. It was in use for GIS data design and collection, database design management and application of tourism analysis and problem solving. Currently, Internet has become the inseparable part of the Information and communication Technology. Online technologies within the tourism industry have significantly impacted on communications, transactions and relationships between the various industry operators and with the customer, as well as between regulators and operators. The Internet provides many advantages in the tourism industry (Ray et al., 2014). The GIS technicians and researchers started research on how to share the GIS features online, rather than using it as a standalone system. In the year 1993, the Web GIS started evolving rapidly. The online static maps slowly changed to interactive dynamic maps over the World Wide Web. This is the first step of Web GIS. The greatest advantage was to get rid of traditional desktop GIS, its installation and data sharing hazard. Today’s web user can create content on the web both collaboratively and individually, allowing for a personalized web experience through wikis, blogs, podcasts, photo sharing, and other technologies. GIS and mapping applications have both benefited from and contributed to these trends, collectively called “Web 2.0” (Pierce et al., 2009). This provides the concept of Geospatial Mashups, especially Map Mashups. The latest trend in the field of geospatial science and technology in Web GIS, is Geospatial Mashups. Integration of multiple data layers from multiple sources, is one of the most common and effective functional requirements of Web GIS applications. On the Web GIS context, a Mashup is the process of merging multiple sources of data, both spatial and non-spatial, into a single integrated spatial display. It is about extracting spatial data from a non-spatial source and combining with other spatial data and finally displaying it on a map. This research paper discusses the basic architecture of the Geospatial Mashups in Web GIS and its application in visual impact analysis and strategic management in tourism.

Key Terms in this Chapter

GPS: Global Positioning System is one of the most popular tools of GIT. GPS is a radio navigation system that allows land, sea, and airborne users to determine their exact location, velocity, and time 24 hours a day, in all weather conditions, anywhere in the world. The GPS is being used in science to provide data that has never been available before in the quantity and degree of accuracy that the GPS makes possible.

Geospatial Mashups: Mashup is picking data or functionality from different sources (both homogeneous and heterogeneous) on the web and combining them within the browser to present to the user. On the Web GIS context, a Mashup is the process of merging multiple sources of data, both spatial and non-spatial, into a single integrated spatial display. It is about extracting spatial data from a non-spatial source and combining with other spatial data and finally displaying it on a map.

Tourist: Someone who travels for pleasure and recreation and exchange of culture.

VOIP: Voice over Internet Protocol is a collection of technology for the full duplex real-time transmission of voice communications and multimedia sessions over the internet. VoIP offers a substantial cost savings over traditional long distance telephone calls.

CRS: Computer Reservation Systems is a computerized system used to store and retrieves information and carry out transactions related to the information or booking of airline ticket, railway ticket, hotel booking etc. CRS has made the online booking and collecting information much easier, faster and effective.

GIS: Geographic Information System is one of the most popular tools of GIT. It is the modern technology for capturing, storing, retrieving, manipulating, mapping and analyzing spatial and non-spatial geographical data in the digital format. GIS is the information system that provides functions including visual 3D presentations about any geographical locations, advanced analysis etc. of digital geospatial information by processing them in an integrated manner.

V. R.: AU60: eXtyles Bibliographic Reference Processing failed to fully style the reference "Technology". Please check the copyediting. Technology (V. R.): Virtual Reality Technology is a computer-simulated environment that can simulate virtual reality, i.e. an artificial environment created by software and presented to the user in such a way that the user accepts it as a real environment. In VR, highly visual 3D environments are created by using CAD software and graphics hardware. VR has its application in different sectors viz. Military training, Architecture, Game, Medical Procedures etc.

GIT: Geospatial Information Technology is a collection information communication tools used to capture, store, transform, manipulate, analyze, and produce information related to the surface of the Earth. This data may exist as maps, graphs, 3D virtual models, tables, and/or lists. Example: GIS, GPS etc.

ICT: Information and Communication Technologies, it refers to technologies that provide information through telecommunications. ICT and Information Technology (IT) are more or less similar, but ICT focuses primarily on communication technologies. This includes the Internet, wireless networks, cell phones, satellite systems and other communication mediums.

Tourism: Tourism is a social, cultural and economic phenomenon related to the movement of people to places outside their usual place of residence. Tourism comprises the activities of persons travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited. AU59: Reference appears to be out of alphabetical order. Please check

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