Application of Nanotechnology in Global Issues

Application of Nanotechnology in Global Issues

Ranjit Barua (OmDayal Group of Institutions, India), Sudipto Datta (Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, India) and Jonali Das (Raja Peary Mohan College, Calcutta University, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-3576-9.ch015

Abstract

Nanotechnology basically means any kind of technology in a nanoscale, which can be applied in the existent world. It is a comparatively new research field, but it is not a completely new area and the research draws insights from many other research areas. It is generally considered that nanotechnology makes possible the coming of the new Industrial Renaissance since it has the potential for a reflective impact on modern society and economy in the early 21st century, similar to that of information technology (IT), electronics technology, especially in semiconductor technology or molecular and cellular biology. The purpose of this chapter is to look into the present aspects of nanotechnology. In this chapter, the authors discuss a variety of applications of nanotechnology in recent decades like modern engineering, robotics, food technology, medicine, etc., and also they indicate the current and potential uses of nanoscience and nanotechnologies. Social and ethical impacts as well as health and environmental impacts will be highlighted.
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Introduction

Nanotechnology is already serving significant role in fueling progress and transformation in numerous fields of technology, natural sciences and engineering divisions such as energy, information and communication technology, medicine, environmental technology, home security, transportation, and food safety, with lots of others. Existing nanotechnology has greatly transformed physics, chemistry, biotechnology and material science and as a result we already know how to make innovative materials that have distinctive characteristics as their arrangements are resolute on the nanometer scale. Science and technology continue to progress forward in creating the fabrication of micro and nano-devices and systems that have major significance for a variety of consumer, biomedical and industrial applications (Morrison et al., 2008). Nanotechnology works at the first level of arrangement of atoms or molecules for both anthropogenic and other living systems. This is where the characteristics and purposes of all systems are described. Nanotechnology assures the capability to make specific machine and apparatus of molecular dimension. In its actual sense, “Nanotechnology” refers to the estimated capability to build things from the bottom up, applying tools and techniques, which are being developed to create high performance produces. This theoretical potential was first clearly imagined as near to our times as 1959 by physicist Richard Feynman. According to NNI and NSF (National Science Foundation), Nanotechnology is the capability to recognize, manage and manipulate substance at the point of individual molecules and atoms. Nanotechnology is often suggested to as a common purpose technique because in its modern version it will have major impact on almost all industries and also all over areas of civilization (Mansoori GA et al., 2005). Science and technology are the main elements of worldwide technological contest. Combining science based on the combining characteristics of nature at the nanoscale offers a new base for integration of technology, innovation, and knowledge. There is a longitudinal progression of divergence and convergence in main regions of science and technology (Iverson NM et al., 2013). Such as at macro scale, the convergence of sciences was suggested during the recovery and it was pursued by constricted disciplinary specialization in science and technology in the 18th-20th centuries. The convergence at the nanoscale achieved its potency in about year 2000, and one may approximate a divergence of the nano-formation of architectures in the coming decades. Figure 1 shows application of nanotechnology in various fields.

Figure 1.

Nanotechnology in various fields

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Function Of Nanotechnology In Various Fields

Nanotechnology is doing to notably progress, numerous technology, constant transform and different engineering divisions like medicine, energy, environmental science, transportation, and food safety, information technology with lots of others field. Recently nanotechnology connect with existing advancement in biotechnology, chemistry, physics and materials science to create modern materials, which have unique properties as their arrangements are determined on the nanometer scale (Huang et al., 2009, Morrison et al., 2008). Engineers and researchers have been associating the particulars of functioning with nanoscale elements. At the present they have an outstanding idea of how to create a nanoscale materials by means of characteristics on no account imagined before. Manufactured goods applying nanoscale materials and methods are now accessible. Nanoscale silver also applies in anti bacterial wound healing treatment. A gas can be neutralized by nanoscale dry powder. Batteries for tools are being done with nanoscale materials in order to perform more quickly with less heat and more power (Mansoori GA et al., 2005). To prevent sunburns from ultraviolet sunlight, a sunscreens containing with nanoscale Zinc Oxide or Titanium Dioxide is used, which can reflect the UV light. Next session a variety of nanoscale based techniques and products based are explained in detail (Wesam Al-Mufti M et al., 2015).

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