Application of Soil Washing Treatment Method for the Remediation of Petroleum Polluted Soil

Application of Soil Washing Treatment Method for the Remediation of Petroleum Polluted Soil

Abdullahi Evuti Mohammed (University of Abuja, Nigeria), Kamoru Adio Salam (University of Abuja, Nigeria) and Silas Shamaye Samuel (University of Abuja, Nigeria)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-0369-0.ch020


The increasing contamination of soil by petroleum products has been a great source of concern to our society because of its negative consequences on the environment. Thus, several remediation technologies and trials have been propounded for a crude oil-polluted environment. This chapter reviews the dynamics of pollutants in the soil and the various treatment technologies for petroleum-polluted soils viz physico-chemical, thermal, and biological treatment methods. Authors experimented on soil washing using detergent for the remediation of petroleum contaminated soils considering different concentrations. The percentage removal of aliphatic and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) was determined using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest percentage removal efficiencies of 97.55% and 61.41% for aliphatic and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons were obtained at detergent concentration of 20w/v% respectively.
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Dynamics Of Pollutants In The Soil

Presently, the geosphere is seen as fragile and prone to damages emanating from anthropogenic activities (Raphael et al., 2013). Manahan (2001) defined pollution as an increase in the quantity of a particular element above the levels in which they naturally occur, resulting from external source related to human actions. Xenobiotic behaviour in the soil is of great difficulty to predict, because its composition is completely complex and heterogeneous. Hence, the understanding of the physico-chemical properties of the contaminant compounds and the environment is fundamental to predict its dynamics.

Contaminant spread in the soil in vaporised, residual or absorbed phases, free phase and dissolved phase. The distribution of such phases will depend on their physico-chemical properties and also on the soil type. Hence, the movement of the contaminants and their toxic nature are linked to the soil’s capacity in maintaining them while retained in their solid phase, making them not available to be absorbed by plants, eroded or leached (McBride, 1994). Soil particles (m2/g) have available surface area due to some of the factors that influence binding between the contaminant and the soil. Also, the adsorption of contaminant to the environment is influenced by the electrical charge of the soil particles (Otten et al., 1997).

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