Application of Solutions of the Electrochemical Processed Mineral “Bishofit” in Plant Production

Application of Solutions of the Electrochemical Processed Mineral “Bishofit” in Plant Production

Valerij Drevin (Volgograd State Agrarian University, Russia), Valerij Fomichev (Volgograd State Agrarian University, Russia), Igor Viktorovich Yudaev (Don State Agrarian University, Russia), Lyubov Minchenko (Volgograd State Agrarian University, Russia), Gulnara Gizzatova (Volgograd State Agrarian University, Russia), Inna Kucherova (Volgograd State Agrarian University, Russia), Tatyana Shipaeva (Volgograd State Agrarian University, Russia), Valeriya Komarova (Volgograd State Agrarian University, Russia) and Ivan Rybintsev (State Agrarian University of Moldova, Moldova)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-7573-3.ch012

Abstract

Hexaqua magnesium chlorine, bishofite, almost never occurred in the fossil salt deposits until recently, while industry has used artificially produced magnesium chloride. The discovery of bishofite deposits in the Lower Volga region (both for raw materials purity of MgCl2 up to 95-98%, and for reserves about 500 billion tons) was a unique event. The use of bischofite consists in the salt compositions of sand to protect roads from icing yet. The chapter represents the results summary of the bishofite solutions electrochemical processing with the purpose of obtaining solutions with the antibacterial properties complex the use of which can be recommended for pre-plant seeds treatment, plant protection from fungal effects, which allowed, as shown by experiments on the crops cultivation, to increase yields up to two-three times, and also to use for disinfection of domestic and industrial wastewater in agricultural enterprises. The technological characteristics of the using electrochemical device are considered in the chapter.
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Background

General characteristics of bischofite. Hexaqua magnesium chloride, bischofite, until recently did not occur in fossil salt-bearing scales, and in the industry was used artificially obtained magnesium chloride.

For the first time the mineral bischofite was discovered in the form of a component in the famous Shtatsfurtsky salt-bearing scales of Germany by the German geologist and chemist Karl-Gustav Bischof at the end of the 19th century. The year of the official bischofite opening was the 1877. It is commonly believed that this mineral is a product of the dissolved salts crystallization of the ancient sea, which precipitated during the water evaporation while reaching the limiting ion concentrations, more than two hundred million years ago, in the Permian period. Bischofit is an ancient crystalline salt. In the first decades after its discovery, bischofite was considered as a relatively rare mineral and was of interest only as a source of magnesium and its compounds (Derevyagin, Sedlechkiy & Ermakov, 1989; Shand, 2006).

Bischofite is easily disolved and therefore is extracted by the artesian water dissolution method (leaching) of the dry underground mineral deposits at the depth of occurrence. The resulting brine is pumped upward

In the seventies of the twentieth century, the Lower Volga region was the discovery place of the bischofite deposits, magnesium chloride (MgCl2 × 6H2O) with a high content of up to 95-98%, and reserves – over 500 billion tons, which was a unique event. It should be noted the presence of numerous microelements in the composition of natural bischofite. The occurrence depth is 800-2000 m. The total occurrence area is 10,500 km2 (Batalin & Svidzinsky, 2001; Bondarenko, 2001). The chemical composition of “Bischofit” is given in Table 1.

Table 1.
The bischofite solution chemical composition in the Volgograd occurrence
Indicator’s NameValue
Specific gravity, g/l1.320-1.330
РН, unit5.5-6.8
Mineralization, g/l400-450
Salt Content to Dry Residue,%
MgCl2×6H2O90-96
MgSO4×H2O0.1-2.5
MgBr20.4-0.95
NaCl0.1-0.4
CaSO40.1-0.7
KCl×MgCl2×6H2O0.1-5.5
Microelements, %
Iron0.003-0.03
Bismuth0.0005-0.001
Molybdenum0.0005-0.001
Bor0.002-0.08
Aluminum0.001-0.02
Titanium0.0005-0.001
Cuprum0.0001-0.0006
Silicon0.02-0.2
Barium0.0001-0.0006
Strontium0.001-0.02
Cobalt0.003-0.005
Rubidium0.0001-0.002
Cesium0.0001-0.001
Lithium0.0001-0.0003

Key Terms in this Chapter

Micellar Particle: Is a particle of colloidal dimensions that exists in equilibrium with the molecules or ions in solution from which it is formed.

Electrolysis: Is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.

Electrolytic Bischofite: Is an aqueous solution of bischofite subjected to the electrolysis process.

Ion: Is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

Electrolyte: Is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.

Bischofite (Hexaqua Magnesium Chlorine): Is a hydrous magnesium chloride mineral with formula MgCl 2 ·6H 2 O. Bischofite is an ecologically pure natural magnesium poly-mineral with a unique composition. It contains many macro- and micro-elements vital for human health, in much higher concentrations than can be found in sea or ocean salt.

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