Application Potential of Polymeric Nanoconstructs for Colon-Specific Drug Delivery

Application Potential of Polymeric Nanoconstructs for Colon-Specific Drug Delivery

Sanjay Kumar Jain (Dr. Harisingh Gour University, India), Ankita Tiwari (Dr. Harisingh Gour University, India), Ankit Jain (GLA University, India), Amit Verma (Dr. Harisingh Gour University, India), Shivani Saraf (Dr. Harisingh Gour University, India), Pritish Kumar Panda (Dr. Harisingh Gour University, India) and Gaytri Gour (Dr. Harisingh Gour University, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-4781-5.ch002

Abstract

Numerous applications of colon-specific drug delivery have been found in a wide array of diseases like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel diseases (ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease), colorectal cancer, and diverticulitis. Drug delivery to the colon has different anatomic and pathophysiological barriers. In recent advancements, these barriers were overcome by using biodegradable polymeric nanoconstructs, which are exhibiting minimal systemic adverse effects. Various polymeric nanoconstructs (PNCs) such as nanoparticles, micelles, and dendrimers have been exploited for effective targeting to pathological sites of colon. PNCs on oral administration not only protect the bioactive from physicochemical degradation but also prevent premature leakage in the upper parts of gastrointestinal tract. The chapter summarizes various PNCs-based approaches for colon-specific drug delivery.
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Anatomy And Physiology Of The Colon

Parts of the Colon

The large intestine is approximately 1.5 m and divided into various segments such as caecum, ascending colon, hepatic flexure, transverse colon, splenic flexure, appendix, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum and anus. The caecum has out-pouching in the interior; extends beyond ileocaecal junction and is in continuation with the ascending colon superiorly. There is a narrow diverticulum called vermiform appendix at the angle between the caecum and terminal part of ileum. The colon is covered by a pink lining known as mucosa. The ascending colon transcends upwards from the caecum and it bends to the left at the hepatic flexure to form transverse colon. Hepatic flexure is located inferior to the lobe of the liver (Mitchell, Vogl, & Adam, 2009). Splenic flexure is located just inferior to the spleen, higher and more posterior than the right colic flexure and is connected to the diaphragm by phrenicocolic ligament (Mitchell, R. D., Vogl, A. W., & Adam, W. M., 2009). The descending colon transcends down from the left side of the abdominal cavity then folds towards the midline. Sigmoid colon is a S-shaped curve situated in the pelvic region near the left iliac crest which continues downwards to form the rectum.

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