Mark Hallett (Human Motor Control Section, NINDS, National Institutes of Health, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60960-559-9.ch018
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Apraxia is the inability to perform skilled and/or learned movements, not explainable on the basis of more elemental abnormalities. There are several types of apraxia of which the most commonly recognized are (1) limb kinetic apraxia, the loss of hand and finger dexterity; (2) ideomotor apraxia, deficits in pantomiming tool use and gestures with temporal and spatial errors, but with knowledge of the tasks still present; (3) ideational apraxia, the failure to carry out a series of tasks using multiple objects for an intended purpose; and (4) conceptual apraxia, loss of tool knowledge, when tools and objects are used inappropriately. Apraxia can be a feature of both frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer disease, and even a rare presenting manifestation of both. How sensitive apraxia measures would be in early detection is not well known.
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Ii. Clinical Conditions

IMA is recognized most commonly as a result of stroke and in some Parkinson-plus conditions such as corticobasal degeneration (Zadikoff & Lang, 2005; Kertesz & McMonagle, 2010; Borroni et al, 2009). These disorders have given some sense to the clinical-pathological correlation. The best evidence is for cortical lesions; whether basal ganglia lesions can cause apraxia by themselves remains controversial.

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