Audio Watermarking: State-of-the-Art

Audio Watermarking: State-of-the-Art

Dejan Drajic (Ericsson d.o.o., Serbia) and Nedeljko Cvejic (University of Cambridge, United Kingdom)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-61520-903-3.ch006
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In this chapter, the authors recapitulate the background and the state-of-the-art of digital audio watermarking, including descriptions of audio watermarking algorithms and malicious attacks against these algorithms. The areas in which audio watermarking has been implemented and the possible future applications are outlined. The three requirements of the “magic triangle” in audio watermarking are described as well, with characterized by a number of defining properties, including robustness, watermark bit rate and perceptual transparency. The chapter also provides a comprehensive list of attacks used by adversaries to interfere with the embedded watermark and to prevent its detection.
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2. Audio Watermarking Applications

2.1 Ownership Protection

In the ownership protection applications, a watermark containing ownership information is embedded to the multimedia host signal. The watermark, known only to the copyright holder, is expected to be very robust and secure (i.e., to survive common signal processing modifications and intentional attacks), enabling the owner to demonstrate the presence of this watermark in case of dispute to demonstrate his ownership. Watermark detection must have a very small false alarm probability. On the other hand, ownership protection applications require a small embedding data rate of the system, because the number of embedded bits that can be subsequently extracted does not have to be large, as long as the watermark robustness is preserved.

2.2 Authentication and Tampering Detection

In the content authentication applications, a set of secondary data is embedded in the host multimedia signal and is later used to determine whether the host signal was tampered. The robustness against removing the watermark or making it undetectable is not a concern as there is no such motivation from attacker’s point of view. However, forging a valid authentication watermark in an unauthorized or tampered host signal must be prevented. In practical applications it is also desirable to locate (in time or spatial dimension) and to discriminate the unintentional modifications (e.g. distortions incurred due to moderate MPEG compression (Noll, 1993; Wu, 2004)) from content tampering itself. In general, the watermark embedding capacity has to be high to satisfy the need for more additional data than in ownership protection applications. The detection must be performed without the original host signal because either the original is unavailable or its integrity has yet to be established. This kind of watermark detection is usually called a blind detection.

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