Authentication and Error Resilience in Images Transmitted through Open Environment

Authentication and Error Resilience in Images Transmitted through Open Environment

Qurban A. Memon
Copyright: © 2015 |Pages: 25
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-8387-7.ch006
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Nowadays data compression and authentication are believed to be vital to image transmission through heterogeneous infrastructure or storage at a centralized place. Though compression and authentication have independently grown to be matured technologies, but currently integration of these technologies is understood to be a key factor in handling tampering in images transmitted through unsecure channels like cloud. In this chapter, an error-resistant approach is investigated to add to low cost image authentication scheme to increase visual quality as well as improve author and user satisfaction. The image authentication includes content based digital signature that is watermarked and later diffused in the whole image before JPEG2000 coding. To tackle manipulations in the image, edge information of the image is examined to offset manipulations in the image transmission through noisy or open and unsecure channels. The edge image is sent along with JPEG2000 coded image to determine corrupted coefficients. The simulation results are conducted on test images for different values of bit error rate to judge confidence in error concealment within the received images.
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Nowadays, it is widely understood that data compression is not only essential to speed up the transmission rate but also to provide other gains like low storage. In order to counter data manipulations and tampering during transmission, the image authentication has turned out to be equally important. But the drawback of compressed data transmission is that the compressed data are susceptible to channel impairments.

The two common standards to compress and code images before transmission and storage are JPEG and JPEG2000. The JPEG standard is based on the discrete cosine transform (DCT) while JPEG2000 is based on the Wavelet transform. JPEG is the older standard and still widely used. The JPEG2000 is the newer standard. The original standard for digital images (IS 10918-1, popularly referred to as JPEG) was developed long time ago. Due to major advancement in computer technology and related research, it was decided by professional community that it is the timely need not only to find a standard that can make the digital image files as small as possible, but also find a new standard that can handle many more aspects. This was motivated by the fact that the JPEG2000 is better at compressing images (up to 20 per cent plus), and that it can allow an image to be retained without any distortion or loss. The communication and multimedia industry are shifting towards JPEG2000 standard for image transmission and storage. However, the JPEG2000 is still under improvements to reach the point where it could have its significant place in the world of imaging and telecommunications.

Data compression reduces the use of channel bandwidth; however compressed data are more vulnerable to channel noise. Therefore, the transmitted data must be resilient to channel noise and other impairments due to channel coding of binary bits (S. Khalid, 2009; L. Hanzo, et al, 2001; Y. Wang, Q. Zhu, 1998; Q. Memon, 2006). Several techniques have been proposed in the literature to address the problem of transmission errors by making transmitted data more robust to channel noise and to conceal corrupted data at the receiver. The authors (Mairal, C., Agueh, M., 2010) present a scalable scheme for robust JPEG 2000 images and video transmission to multiple wireless clients, using an adaptive bandwidth estimation tool. The objective seems to select suitable image layers and resolution for each wireless client, depending upon estimated bandwidth. The authors (Phadikar, A., Maity, S., 2010) propose JPEG200 compatible compressed domain algorithm using integer wavelet, and region-of-interest coding functionality. To find region-of-interest (ROI), threshold based image segmentation and morphological operations are used together to find ROI. Using simulation results, the authors claim that the scheme provides acceptable performance improvement with various lost blocks in ROI. In another research (Martinez-Ruiz, M., et al, 2010), the authors present the results of an initiative to transmit imagery content through a Link-16 tactical network using JPEG2000 compatible approach that involves wavelets to compress images. Specifically, the JPEG2000 code-stream is mapped into Link-16 free-text messages. The most important part of the JPEG2000 compressed image is transmitted through a more error resistant (and anti-jamming) Link-16 packed structure and the remaining of the image in less robust data structures but at higher data rates. The results claimed are preliminary and dependent on Link-16 network resources.

Key Terms in this Chapter

JPEG2000: JPEG2000 is a new standard for image compression method and file format. JPEG2000 is an image coding system that uses state-of-the-art compression techniques based on wavelet technology.

Encryption: The translation of data into a secret code. Encryption is the most effective way to achieve data security.

JPEG: JPEG stands for the Joint Photographic Experts Group standard - a standard for storing and compressing digital images.

Digital Signature: A digital code that can be attached to an electronically transmitted message that uniquely identifies the sender.

BER: Short for bit error rate . In a digital transmission, BER is the percentage of bits with errors divided by the total number of bits that have been transmitted, received or processed over a given time period.

Data Compression: Storing data in a format that requires less space than usual.

Watermarking: It is a pattern of bits inserted into a digital image, audio or video file that identifies the file's copyright information (author, rights, etc.).

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