Autocratic, Transactional, and Servant Leadership in Japan, France, and Mexico: A Cross-Culture Theoretical Analysis

Autocratic, Transactional, and Servant Leadership in Japan, France, and Mexico: A Cross-Culture Theoretical Analysis

Cynthia Maria Montaudon-Tomas (UPAEP Universidad, Mexico), Ivonne M. Montaudon-Tomas (UPAEP Universidad, Mexico) and Yvonne Lomas-Montaudon (Universidad Iberoamericana, Mexico)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1108-4.ch005
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A theoretical study was conducted based on three different leadership styles: autocratic, transactional, and servant. The most relevant characteristics of each leadership style were summarized. A cross-culture study was proposed considering three countries from diverse clusters according to the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness Project (GLOBE). Each culture was analyzed separately, and relevant statistics were presented as elements for comparison. Different models and tools to evaluate cultural differences were used to create a multiple perspectives overview. Information from the three leadership styles was used to further determine whether those styles fit the cultural descriptions in order to establish the most frequent and suitable leadership styles in the selected countries and to understand how leadership styles can vary from region to region.
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Leadership And Social Entrepreneurship

There seems to be a leadership-entrepreneurship gap world-wide, especially in relation to the way leadership styles based on specific cultures can either enhance or hinder entrepreneurship activity. Social entrepreneurship differences can be explained in part by considering cultural leadership ideals at country-level (Lee & Kelly, 2019).

Studies on social entrepreneurial behavior suggest that comportment like commercial entrepreneurial behavior is influenced by leadership skills (Stephan & Drencheva, 2017).

Social entrepreneurship is an inspiring phenomenon (Petrovskaya & Miraykan, 2018); it refers to the development of innovative projects whose main aim is not individual profit but the transformation of society (Rivera, Santos, Martin-Fernandez, Requero, & Cancela, 2018). It involves the recognition, evaluation, and exploitation of opportunities that result in addressing the basic and long-standing needs of societies or, in other words, in the creation and establishment of social values (Austin, Stevenson & Wei Skillern, 2006). Its effectiveness is based on the reflection of the leader in their employees’ intrinsic motivation, satisfaction, and commitment, and in the way their leadership style affects the attitudes of followers.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Culture: The collective customs, arts, social institutions, or a particular group.

Leadership: The art of motivating people towards accomplishing a goal. The action of leading a group of people or an organization. It includes guidance, direction, management and control.

Autocratic Leadership: A leadership style in which one person controls all the decisions and takes very little input from other group members.

Transactional Leadership: A leadership style that sets clear objectives and goals for the followers and uses either punishments or rewards in order to encourage compliance with these goals.

Servant Leadership: A leadership style that involves demonstrating the characteristics of empathy, listening, stewardship, and commitment to personal growth toward others.

Cultural Differences: The various beliefs, behaviors, languages, practices and expressions considered unique to members of a specific ethnicity, race, or national origin.

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