Automated System of Controlling Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Group Flight: Application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Group

Automated System of Controlling Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Group Flight: Application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Group

Tetiana Shmelova (National Aviation University, Ukraine) and Dmitriy Bondarev (National Aviation University, Ukraine)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-7900-7.ch008
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Abstract

In this chapter, the authors present a problem of a performance of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) group flights for a solution of different tasks using criteria of efficiency (safety, regularity, efficiency, economy) and criteria of reliability (connectivity, structural redundancy, survivability, and compactness of connections; the relative distance between UAVs; centrality and periphery of UAVs in the group; the level of system centralizing; etc.). It used graph theory for quantitative estimation of effectiveness of UAVs group flight. It presented all types of UAVs connections in the group (a star, ring, tree, with a common tire, mixed, cellular, etc.). The algorithm for finding central drone repeater (CDR) in a group of the UAVs for sending a control signal to other UAVs in the group was obtained. Examples of for determining the central drone and of the optimal topology in a group of the UAVs in flight are presented.
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Background

In recent years we have observed that Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are very popular in all countries. Nowadays drones are used to perform many tasks that were previously difficult to solve. The ubiquitous and effective use of the UAVs is seen in both military and civil aviation, in particular in combating the effects of emergencies and natural disasters, agriculture, aerial photography, and communications retransmission among others.

For example, 100 controlled UAVs with Light-Emitting Diode (LED) elements installed on them simultaneously depict various colorful figures in the air while using multi-colored lights (Figure 1). They («Drone 100») was synchronously running and lighting in the night sky over the airport of the German city of Tornesch to the accompaniment of the orchestra performing the best classical music. Controlled on the ground by a crew using Personal Computers (PCs) with Intel software, the mass of drones lit up the night sky in sync to a live performance of Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony and executed a stunning light show resembling a fireworks display. It was a new Guinness World Record for group flight of UAVs (Guinness World Records, 2016). The astonishing footage was shown for the first time during Intel CEO Brian Karzai’s keynote on the opening day of CES technology trade show in Las Vegas, USA. A spectacular display of drone technology by Intel Corporation involving 100 small aircraft being launched skywards information has earned a new world record title for the Most Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) airborne simultaneously (Guinness World Records, 2016). The record of the show was set in collaboration with ARS ELECTRONICA FUTURELAB to push the limits of the UAV industry and to showcase what UAVs can be used for.

Figure 1.

The group flight of UAV on the show (Guinness World Records, 2016)

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The authors offer to use the opportunity to control a group of UAVs from a central UAV, which is a repeater of communication from an unmanned station. The central retransmission drone is determined using the method of organizing control in Local Computer Networks (Olefir, 2007). We are considering new methods to further enhance the performance of aviation chemical works through the integration of a group of manned and unmanned aircraft, such as airplanes, helicopters, and UAVs (Figure 2).

Figure 2.

Performance of aviation chemical works by a group of manned and unmanned aircraft

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Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) are a new component of the aviation system, one which International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) states that the aerospace industry is working to understand, define and ultimately integrate. These systems are based on cutting-edge developments in aerospace technologies, offering advancements which may open new and improved civil/commercial applications as well as improvements to the safety and efficiency of all civil aviation. It is obvious that the effectiveness of UAV group flights in many tasks such as monitoring forest fires, search and rescue operations, agricultural application in the processing of crops, retransmission of communications and movement of goods is much higher than with single UAV flights.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Distributed Decision Support System (DDSS): A decision support system which supports distributed organizational decision making.

Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA)/Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS)/Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)/Drone: A system that based on cutting-edge developments in aerospace technologies, offering advancements which are opening new and enhanced civil-commercial applications as well as improvements to the safety and efficiency of the entire civil aviation. The terms RPA or UAV are used to describe the aircraft itself, whereas the term RPAS is generally used to describe the entire operating equipment including the aircraft, the control station from where the aircraft is operated and the wireless data link.

Command and Control (C2): Denotes the set of organizational and technical attributes and processes by which enterprise marshals and employs human, physical, and information resources to solve problems and accomplish missions.

Communication, Navigation, and Surveillance (CNS): The main functions that form the infrastructure for air traffic management, and ensure that air traffic is safe and efficient.

Air Traffic Management (ATM): An aviation term encompassing all systems that assist aircraft to depart from an aerodrome, transit airspace, and land at a destination aerodrome, including air traffic services (ATS), airspace management (ASM), and air traffic flow and capacity management (ATFCM).

NoSQL (Originally Referring to “Non SQL” or “Non-Relational”) Database: Provides a mechanism for storage and retrieval of data that is modeled in means other than the tabular relations used in relational databases.

Decision Support System (DSS): The interactive computer system intended to support different types of activity during the decision making including poorly-structured and unstructured problems.

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