Automatic Transformation of Generic, Validated Business Process Security Models to WS-SecurityPolicy Descriptions

Automatic Transformation of Generic, Validated Business Process Security Models to WS-SecurityPolicy Descriptions

Sven Feja (Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Germany), Sven August (Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Germany), Andreas Speck (Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Germany), Meiko Jensen (Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany) and Jörg Schwenk (Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-0146-8.ch014
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In this chapter, the authors discuss the general capabilities and constraints for model-driven security. Furthermore, the authors focus on the automatic transformation of security models into executable security implementations as well as on the validation of the security models to ensure their correctness. Based on the discussion, the authors present a transformation mechanism that automatically derives WS-SecurityPolicy-conformant security policies. Moreover, the chapter presents a validation mechanism for the security model which is based on graphical validation rules. The application of both mechanisms allows the automatic deployment of validated, security-enabled Web Service based business processes.
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Model-driven software development (MDSD) (e.g. realized by the Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) (The Object Management Group, 2003)) intends to provide a more efficient development of complex software applications. The basis of MDSD is a model, which gets stepwise refined and transformed into an executable software product. In the domain of e-business different types of models are used to describe business processes, e.g. UML activity diagrams, event-driven process chains (EPC) (Keller, Nüttgens, & Scheer, 1992) or BPMN diagrams (The Object Management Group, 2006). Besides the type of model, the modeling tools and their capabilities are an important factors while applying the MDSD process.

A tool which intends to support the MDSD process mainly has to fulfill two tasks—the modeling of processes and the transformations of high level process model to the executable process or source code. A model, that can be used as basis for the MDSD, needs to be enriched with a lot of properties. This includes the high level business requirements as well as specific details for the implementation. Therefore, a modeling and MDSD tool respectively should be able to show only the information important to a specific stakeholder—each as a separate view. As Lübke, Lüecke, Schneider, & Gómez (2008) states, this is a challenging service, which should be provided by any MDSD tool.

Next to the need of different views, the modeling capabilities of a modeling notation have to be considered. This reveals that the modeling e.g. of security properties is not commonly provided by a modeling notation as well as by a MDA tool. For instance, the modeling of security properties often is supported unsatisfactorily (see section ”Existing Security Modeling Capabilities“), though security aspects are an essential issue for many domains. In electronic business, an obvious scenario is an online business process where specific information like credit card data needs to be kept secret.

Technically, MDA implementations of electronic business processes are often realized on the basis of the Web Services platform architecture (Weerawarana, Curbera, Leymann, Storey, & Ferguson, 2005). Web Services are a realization of the service-oriented architecture paradigm (SOA) (MacKenzie, Laskey, McCabe, Brown, & Metz, 2006), which gained broad attention (especially for MDSD) in science and industry. Particular advantages of the Web Services technology are their broad industrial support, high interoperability, and a well-defined abstraction layer approach.

Especially, the broad industrial support has resulted in comprehensive standardization activities. Therefore, today most of the aspects related to Web Services are defined by a standardized specifications. This includes e.g. data representation, transaction management, reliability and security. For example, the handling of important security properties (e.g. for electronic business processes) like authentication, access control, data integrity, and confidentiality are defined by these standards.

In this chapter, we investigate the MDSD approach which uses business process models which are transformed into executable process descriptions (WS-BPEL (Jordan et al., 2007)) and WSDL-based Web Service realizations. Based on this investigation, we present an extension to the MDSD approach which allows the specification of security requirements within a business process model. As an exemplary modeling notation, we use EPCs to illustrate our approach. The extended EPC—a security model— is transformed automatically (according to (Jensen & Feja, 2009)) into an appropriate representation for the Web Services platform. Primarily, we discuss the possibility of denoting the security properties of confidentiality, data integrity, and access control in EPC models, which then are mapped to security policies (WS-SecurityPolicy specification (Kaler & Nadalin, 2005)) for the underlying Web Services. The security model can be realized as a security view for a modeling tool like the ARIS Platform (Software AG, 2008) or the Business Application Modeler (BAM) (Anders, 2010)).

Next to the security model and its transformation to WS-SecurityPolicy, the presented approach includes a validation mechanism to ensure the correctness of the security model. The validation mechanism is based on graphical validation rules as presented by Feja & Fötsch (2008).

Key Terms in this Chapter

WS-SecurityPolicy: The WS-SecurityPolicy specification is an Oasis Standard that allows for annotating Web Services communication with security requirements on a technical level. Based on XML, this dialect of the WS-Policy framework is most commonly used to specify which cryptographic means have to be applied to what parts of a Web Service communication.

Model-Driven Security (MDS): the approach of model-driven security is based on a human-readable, mostly graphical model representation of a system, which is annotated with security properties. On model transformation, this graphical representation is then used to automatically generate machine-readable descriptions — and finally enforcement modules — of these security properties. Similarly, the model allows for automated validation of syntactical and semantic requirements against a given security model.

ARIS Platform: The Architecture of integrated Information Systems (ARIS) is a comprehensive modeling environment. The Platform delivers business process modeling capabilities as well as an EPC to WS-BPEL transformation.

Business Application Modeler (BAM): Is a process modeling tool. BAM provides a flexible meta meta model in order to allow the modeling of multiple graph based modeling notations. As a key capability BAM delivers validation and verification (V&V)mechanism for the process models. The V&V mechanism are based on graphical validation rules. Furthermore, BAM implements the MultiView concept including a prototypical implementation of the security view.

Event-Driven Process Chains (EPC): This graphical modeling language is used to express the data and control flow of business processes. Its main characteristic is the intermittent use of event symbols with function symbols. Whenever an event occurs, its subsequent functions are invoked.

MultiView: A MultiView defines the graphical representation (including visibility) and the of the model elements and attributes respectively of a process model. The definition of a MultiView depends on domain specific requirements and are customizable by stakeholders.

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