Autonomic Cooperative Networking

Autonomic Cooperative Networking

Michał Wódczak (Poznań University of Economics, Poland)
Copyright: © 2015 |Pages: 11
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-5888-2.ch604
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As it capitalises on spatio-temporal processing, cooperative transmission aims to improve the reliability of wireless communications through the exploitation of radio diversity provided by relay nodes assisting in the transmission between the source and destination nodes. The inclusion of network layer routines facilitates the orchestration of such cooperative data processing in terms of the pre-selection of the network nodes to be assigned to cooperating groups intended to express cooperative behaviour. Going further, as the system becomes more and more complex, there appears an urgent need to introduce certain dose of self-management from the global perspective so that numerous cooperative and non-cooperative set-ups may be formed simultaneously. This is where the autonomic system design comes into the picture as the main enabler for and the umbrella under which the concept of Autonomic Cooperative Networking may be realised.
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Since the number of devices interconnected worldwide is growing drastically, the question of the orchestration of the durability-orientated operation of networked systems becomes critically substantial. In fact, durability understood in context of network resilience translates into the provision of the key features of reliability, availability, safety, confidentiality, integrity, and maintainability. To this end, it is advocated for the integration of networking with the rationale behind autonomic computing in terms of self-configuration, self-optimisation, self-healing, and self-protection. This chapter goes one step further as it presents the concept of Autonomic Cooperative Networking (ACN), which not only capitalises on the above-mentioned concept but also incorporates the novel notion of Autonomic Cooperative Behaviour (ACB). ACB stems from and is being triggered by the idea of distributed cooperative transmission, aiming to enable collaboration among devices, enhanced with the integration of the relevant network layer routines. This way the devices are expected to share their computational capabilities and memory to perform joint data processing for the benefit of meeting the global performance indicators through increased resilience.

Obviously, as such a system grows, it appears necessary, from the local perspective, to instantiate cross-layer integration of certain aspects with the use of a network protocol in order to limit any unnecessary control overhead resulting from the exchange of data among the cooperating devices. Yet, as today’s distributed systems are becoming more and more complex, the transition from the local to a more global perspective additionally requires the incorporation of an autonomic overlay so the routing-enabled distributed cooperative system may self-manage. Going further, the paradigm of autonomic system design assumes that such a networked system should follow the operating principles of the human autonomic nervous system and, thus, be able to self-configure and, then, self-manage without any external intervention. Autonomic design has its own area of applicability and it should not be confused with autonomous or automated systems. While autonomous may, on the one hand, pertain to being stand-alone, and, on the other hand, to being cognitive, automated is mostly done by means of scripting. The difference in meaning does not exclude, however, certain dose of synergy so that autonomics, understood as self-management, could be supported through the inclusion of autonomous and automated routines.

The idea of Autonomic Cooperative Networking is expected to become one of the key emerging technologies behind the concept of Autonomic Future Internet. At this time it is undergoing the pre-standardisation path within the Industry Specification Group (ISG) on Autonomic network engineering for the self-managing Future Internet (AFI), functioning under the auspices of the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). In particular, it is applicable to ad-hoc and mesh networks and the author of this chapter is serving as a Rapporteur of ETSI AFI on the Autonomicity-Enabled Ad-hoc and Mesh Network Architecture which is preparing a Group Specification (GS) in this area (Wódczak, Meriem, Chaparadza, Quinn, Lee, Ciavaglia, Tsagkaris, Szott, Zafeiropoulos, Radier, Kielthy, Liakopoulos, Kousaridas & Duault, 2011). To account for the above, the chapter is organised as follows. First, the concept of cooperative transmission is described through the introduction of the idea of Virtual Antenna Arrays (VAA) in order to pave the ground for further analysis. Following, it is complemented with the incorporation of the relevant routines of the network layer with special emphasis on the Optimised Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR) and its Multi-Point Relay (MPR) selection heuristics. Finally, the routing enabled cooperation is translated into Autonomic Cooperative Behaviour (ACB) being integrated directly into the Generic Autonomic Network Architecture (GANA).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Spatio-Temporal Processing: A generic term for the space-time block and trellis coded concepts allowing for the exploitation of the radio channel orthogonality for the purposes of increasing either the system robustness or its throughput with the aid of the Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) technology.

Multi-Point Relays: A set of network nodes chosen with the aid of the MPR selection heuristics of the Optimized Link State Routing protocol in such a way that the protocol control overhead becomes substantially reduced.

Distributed Cooperative Transmission: The mapping of the rationale behind spatio-temporal processing onto networked systems where designated Relay Nodes may form Virtual Antenna Arrays and, given proper synchronization, provide better transmission robustness or throughput.

Autonomic System: A concept advocating for a networked computer system to follow the principle behind the functioning of the human autonomic nervous system, thus enabling it to self-manage without any need for external intervention for the majority of the time of its operation.

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