Erdal Tanas Karagöl (Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Turkey)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2939-2.ch010


Azerbaijan has tried to show progress both politically and economically after it gained independency. It leaded fastest economic growth and the contribution to this transformation is having the advantages of energy resources. After declaring its independence, the sector structure has been modified and new employment areas have been formed causing a high growth rate. The country also has participated in international economic organizations to develop economic relations and cooperate with other countries.
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Demographic Structure And Socio-Cultural Features

Azerbaijan was one of the fifteen countries under the dominance of Soviet Union until gaining its independence in 1991. After declaring its independence, there was a decline in the population due to the migration. According to recent studies, there has been a significant increase in population both in the rural and the urban areas. The country’s urban population is 9.7 million that constitutes 54% of the total population while the urbanization rate is about 1.56% (CIA, 2016). The most populated city is Baku with 2.3 million inhabitants. The second most populated city is Sumqayit with 333,000 people followed by Ganja with a total of 328,000 people (T.C. Ekonomi Bakanlığı, 2016).

Azerbaijan is home to many different ethnic groups; nevertheless the majority consists of Azerbaijanis. The Azerbaijanis form-about 90% of the total population. On the other hand, the Lezgians and the Armenians represent 2% and 1% of the country’s population, respectively. Analyzing the gender distribution, men form 49.8% and females constitute 50.2% of the country’s population (AZSTAT, 2016). As it is seen the female population is more than men in Azerbaijan and the birth rate is increasing gradually.

Figure 1.

The distribution of age groups in Azerbaijan’s population

Source: Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), 2016.

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