Backward Planning, Forward Motion

Backward Planning, Forward Motion

Janice M. Krueger (Clarion University of Pennsylvania, USA)
Copyright: © 2018 |Pages: 25
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2802-9.ch003
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The main purpose of the chapter is to present a holistic approach for effectively designing library and information literacy instruction applicable to any library setting. After reviewing the historical developments and implications of information literacy concepts, the three stages of backward design are explained and placed in the context of key learning theories and perspectives. Examples of the three-stage process demonstrate how the design calls on librarians to identify the desired results embodied by standards and objectives, to create authentic assessments that provide evidence of learning, and to align learning activities with the desired outcomes. Examples also highlight variations for different delivery formats, including face-to-face, flipped, and online environments. Implications for using backward design for overall, additional program planning are also discussed.
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In order to be proficient and to direct students in learning, anyone in an instructional role must have clear goals for students and an understanding of the skills necessary for student achievement (Childre, Sands, & Pope, 2009; Kelting-Gibson, 2005). It follows, then, that one must understand the concept of information literacy before being able to teach it and be aware of how it can change over time, especially with regard to the ever-changing digital landscape. An important aspect of information literacy and integral to the development of skills called for in today’s information environment is an understanding of the many definitions used for it and their evolving nature. The term, information literacy, began in the business world and is attributed to Paul Zurkowski, the 1974 president of the Information Literacy Association. In his proposal to the National Commission on Libraries and Information Science, he called for a link between libraries, traditionally considered as the place for storage and retrieval of information, and information activities of the private business sector. Information literate individuals were viewed as those able to apply information resources to work-related problem solving (Behrens, 1994; Demo, 1986; Eisenberg, Lowe, & Spitzer, 2004). This view called for a set of skills beyond locating materials held at the library. During the remainder of the seventies, the definition was broadened to include locating information efficiently and effectively for decision-making and carried the weight of responsible citizenship (Behrens, 1994; Eisenberg et al., 2004).

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