Best Teaching and Technology Practices for the Hybrid Flipped College Classroom

Best Teaching and Technology Practices for the Hybrid Flipped College Classroom

Lori Ogden (West Virginia University, USA) and Neal Shambaugh (West Virginia University, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-1851-8.ch013
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Two cases of the flipped classroom approach, one undergraduate course and one a graduate course, are used to demonstrate the different ways that flipping instruction can occur in both F2F and online courses, thus, extending the notion of hybrid and flipped teaching decisions with F2F and virtual class-rooms. Both cases are summarized in terms of instructional design decisions, the models of teaching framework, and research conducted on the courses. Findings from research conducted on both courses indicate that a flipped classroom approach can enhance the teaching of both F2F and online courses as it provides instructors an opportunity to adapt instruction to meet the individual needs of students. Recommendations, based on this course development work, are provided for undergraduate and graduate courses in terms of access, meaningful activities, and feedback.
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Use Of The Flipped Classroom

Initially used in the 1960s, educators returned to instructional video through digital formats in F2F classrooms (i.e., movie clips, digital whiteboards) and hybrid classrooms where video was viewed in both real time and asynchronous activities. Concerns with passive learning led to more active approaches and an increase in instructor feedback as needed by each student (Ent, 2016).

The research for flipped classroom can be grounded in the work of Bransford, Brown, and Cocking (2000), who reported that students need factual knowledge, conceptual understanding of how this knowledge is structured, and activities which help the student to retrieve and apply this knowledge. In terms of learning mathematics, one of the content areas in this chapter, the literature recommends that educators promote mastery learning and conceptual understanding (Ames & Archer, 1988), model the use of learning strategies (Zimmerman, 1990), and convey the value and utility of mathematics (Eccles et al., 1983). Many universities have integrated technology into their mathematics courses in an effort to combat low levels of motivation and to bolster student mastery of mathematical procedures and conceptual understanding of math concepts. Rakes, Valentine, McGatha, and Ronau (2010) completed a meta-analysis of literature regarding the instruction of algebra and concluded that students perform better when instruction incorporates the use of technology and manipulatives to foster conceptual understanding rather than procedural skills.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Flipped Classroom: Inverting classroom activities and online instruction, in which online provides students with instruction (usually video) and supporting tasks, while the F2F setting instructors address student needs and online task performance.

ADDIE Model: A generic representation of instructional design consisting of the phases of Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation.

Screencasting: A software product that records human activity on a computer and may feature the ability for a user to edit the audio and video and add other media elements.

Asynchronous: Online delivery that can be accessed at any time, any place.

Instructional Design: A structured process of designing educational products and intervention, a process composed of phases of activity (see ADDIE) that are interconnected.

Models of Teaching Framework: A means to document approaches to teaching. Joyce, Weil, and Calhoun (2014) organize teaching across different families in terms of their major learning outcome (e.g., behavioral, cognitive, social, personal).

Synchronous: Online delivery that is in real-time with users.

Hybrid: A mix of F2F and online activity.

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