Beyond the Embodied Digital Service Encounter: The Co-Creation of a Web Service Recovery

Beyond the Embodied Digital Service Encounter: The Co-Creation of a Web Service Recovery

Jannick Kirk Sørensen (Center for Communication, Media and Information Technologies (CMI) Aalborg University Copenhagen, Denmark)
Copyright: © 2018 |Pages: 18
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-5026-6.ch001


When a digital service encounter develops differently than anticipated, the client becomes a user. This transformation reveals the ambiguous nature of digital service encounter being neither well-functioning tools, nor having the same sensitivity to and tolerance for service failures as in human service encounters. Through the case-study of a service failure and subsequent co-creation of the service recovery, this chapter introduces and unfolds the concept of ‘cognitively dominated service encounters'. This category is suggested to supplement and criticize Paul Dourish's (2001) concept of Embodied Interaction. With a micro analysis of the interaction in this service journey, we identify the need for a category of knowledge intensive service encounters that acknowledge both the complexity of the service provided, but also the constraints and possibilities in the digital design material.
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2. Background

The traditional approach to the design of digital self-service solutions combines two strategies. One approach is to formalize the service via service blueprints (Patricio, Fisk, & Falcao e Cunha, 2008; Shostack, 1982), design patterns (Gamma, Helm, Johnson, & Vlissides, 1994; Sikici & Topaloglu, 2004) and to map and analyze customer journeys (Halvorsrud, Kvale, & Følstad, 2016; Stickdorn & Schneider, 2011) and their service touch points (Clatworthy, 2011; Voorhees et al., 2017). A supplementary approach is to involve users at different stages of the design process to identify needs and goal, possible misconceptions, and expectations (Brandt & Messeter, 2004; Buur & Bødker, 2000; Hoyer, Chandy, Dorotic, Krafft, & Singh, 2010) as well as applying usability and interaction design techniques to optimize the way the interface communicates available user actions. A central effort within the research field Human Computer Interaction has thus been to improve the design of interfaces to minimize physical and cognitive constraints for users. Via Gibson’s (1979) theories of affordances, brought into software design by Gaver (1991, 1996) and Norman (1988), the design goal has often been to create a unity of man and machine. The ICT-system should be the natural extension of the human mind and body; it should be a tool ‘ready at hand’ for the user.

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