Big Data and Its Visualization With Fog Computing

Big Data and Its Visualization With Fog Computing

Richard S. Segall (Department of Computer and Information Technology, Neil Griffin College of Business, Arkansas State University, Jonesboro, USA) and Gao Niu (Department of Mathematics, Bryant University, Smithfield, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-2460-2.ch019

Abstract

Big Data is data sets that are so voluminous and complex that traditional data processing application software are inadequate to deal with them. This article discusses what is Big Data, and its characteristics, and how this information revolution of Big Data is transforming our lives and the new technology and methodologies that have been developed to process data of these huge dimensionalities. Big Data can be discrete or a continuous stream of data, and can be accessed using many types and kinds of computing devices ranging from supercomputers, personal work stations, to mobile devices and tablets. Discussion is presented of how fog computing can be performed with cloud computing as a mechanism for visualization of Big Data. An example of visualization techniques for Big Data transmitted by devices connected by Internet of Things (IoT) is presented for real data from fatality analysis reporting system (FARS) managed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) of the United States Department of Transportation (USDoT). Big Data web-based visualization software are discussed that are both JavaScript-based and user interface-based. Challenges and opportunities of using Big Data with fog computing are also discussed.
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1. Introduction: What Is Big Data?

Big Data is defined as the collections of datasets whose volume, velocity or variety is so large that it is difficult to store, manage, process, and analyze the data using traditional databases and data processing tools. (Bahga & Madisetti, 2016) According to an estimate by IBM, 2.5 quintillion bytes of data is created every day, and that 90% of the data in the world today has been created in the last two years alone. (IBM, 2017)

In this paper, we attempt to describe the key characteristics of Big Data, Cloud Computing and Fog Computing. Cloud computing is a major computing technology currently used to store, process and analyze Big Data. Fog Computing is a supplement to Cloud Computing and it can be performed with Cloud computing as a mechanism for visualization of Big Data.

In 2012, United States (US) government committed $200 million in “Big Data” research and development investment. (The White House, 2012) Big Data application is estimated worth $300 billion dollars for the US health care industry, and $250 billion euros for the Europe’s public section administration. (Manyika, Chui, Brown, Bughin, Dobbs, & Roxburgh, 2011) So what is Big Data? The numerical definition of Big Data is evolving with the development of the technology. A dynamic definition is that data that exceeds the capacity of commonly used hardware and software tools to capture, store and analyze within a tolerable elapsed time is considered as Big Data. (Franks, 2012). Clegg (2017) authored a book on how the information revolution of Big Data is transforming our lives.

According to Marr (2016), Big Data in practice includes such as for Walmart: How Big Data is used to drive supermarket performance, Netflix: How Netflix used Big Data to Give us the programs we want, Rolls-Royce: How Big Data is used to drive success in manufacturing, and Facebook: How Facebook uses Big Data to make customer service more personal. Table 1 lists other multifaceted applications of Big Data as authored as individual chapters of Marr (2016) of how forty-five successful companies used Big Data to deliver extraordinary results.

Table 1.
Successful applications of Big Data analytics by organizations and companies around the world (Derived from book by Marr (2016))
ORGANIZATION/COMPANYBIG DATA APPLICATION
AmazonHow predictive analysis is used to get a 360-view of customers
Caesar’sBig Data at the Casino
Dickey’s Barbecue PitHow Big Data is used to gain performance insights into one of America’s most successful restaurant chains
ExperianUsing Big Data to make lending decisions and to crack down on identify fraud.
FitbitBig Data in the fitness arena
John DeereHow Big Data can be applied on farms
LinkedInHow Big Data is used to fuel social media success
Ralph LaurenBig Data in the fashion industry
Tera SeismicUsing Big Data to predict earthquakes
Transport for LondonHow Big Data is used to improve and manage public transportation in London, UK.
TwitterHow Twitter is used and IBM deliver customer insights from Big Data
UberHow Big Data is at the center of Uber’s Transportation Business
US Olympic Women’s Cycling TeamHow Big Data Analytics is used to optimize athletes performance
Walt Disney Parks and ResortsHow Big Data is Transforming our Family Holidays
ZSL and London ZooBig Data in the zoo and to protect animals

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