Biochemistry of the Brain

Biochemistry of the Brain

Sumit Kumar (Jawaharlal Nehru University, India)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 13
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-2860-0.ch004

Abstract

Biochemistry is the cornerstone of biological science, feeding the new discoveries and providing us essential and fundamental discoveries vital to understand natural science. Biochemistry has been long recognized as a central pillar in neurochemistry, especially the imbalance of the enzyme that leads to the faulty functioning of the brain. Furthermore, we had also comprehensively discussed the metabolic and genetic aspect of major mental disorders and the genetics of intellectual disability and behavioral disorders.
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Chapter Outline

  • Introduction

  • Biochemical, metabolic and genetic aspect of major mental disorders,

  • The genetics of Intellectual disability and behavioral disorders

  • Other behavioral disorders

  • Conclusion

Learning Objectives

  • Describing the biochemical, aspect of mental disorders, mental retardation and, behavioral disorders

  • To describe the role of metabolic system in psychiatric disorders

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Biochemical And Metabolic Aspect Of Major Mental Disorders

Psychotic disorders are always traced to some metabolic deficiencies. Stanley Mann working at Maudsley Hospital, London was the first person to report higher chance of deregulated carbohydrate metabolism or consistence hyperglycemia in mentally ill patients and thus he linked the chronic mental cases with the disordered carbohydrate metabolism (Sourkes., 1961). Since then, over four hundred types of mental disorders are identified and placed into five major categories as follow:

  • 1.

    Disorders diagnosed during childhood.

  • 2.

    Organic mental disorders.

  • 3.

    Substance-related disorders.

  • 4.

    Mood disorders and personality disorders.

  • 5.

    Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Mental Disorder: A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal normal behavior.

Bipolar Disorder: Bipolar disorder is distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, and irritable mood.

Substance Abuse: Substance abuse disorder is a brain disease associated with changes in the brain. It occurs due to misuse and abuse of certain drugs and psychotic substances.

Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder: It is a combination of the attention deficit, hyperactive and impulsive behavior.

Metabolic Deficit: This deficit can be a result of reduced calorie intake, increased calorie expenditure through exercise, or a combination of the two.

Intellectual Disability: It is also known as general learning disability and mental retardation. It is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning.

Schizophrenia: Is a mental disorder characterized by fundamental and characteristic distortions of thinking and perception and affects that are inappropriate or blunted.

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