Breaking Fake News and Verifying Truth

Breaking Fake News and Verifying Truth

Kazuhiko Shibuya (ROIS, Japan)
Copyright: © 2021 |Pages: 12
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-3479-3.ch101

Abstract

How to distinguish between fake news or not? How to verify information whether true or not? The goal of this article is to review online fact-checking studies on fake news. The core of this matter is how to progress fact-checking on misleading information and vague knowledge. This procedure is crucially managed by manually or some computational mechanisms. The burden of proof should be evaluated truthiness by scientific ways included objectiveness and falsifiability. It never accepts neither solipsism nor agitating manners. In addition, it should take carefully to extract the most importance from the truth whether manually or mechanically, and it also reconsiders those backgrounds. For sound democracy, mediated knowledge brings the facts for citizens, and it should encourage them to ponder their directions of governances in nation. Using ICT, it should properly facilitate fundamental educations for them.
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Background

The world is the totality of facts, not of things (Wittgenstein, 1922). Fake news recently reminds us this renowned sentence. Wittgenstein also said that the world consists of a set of facts, and facts are determined by truth or false as a proposition style. He casted questions on world cognition, provable logics, facts and knowledge. However, to date, fake news and post-truth are too far from truth, facts, impartiality and fairness. Any assertions of fake news are never valid and those contents are almost based on malicious intentions or misunderstandings. Moreover, fake news can spread faster than other reliable information through social networks (Doer,Fouz&Friedrich,2012; Roozenbeek&Linden,2018).Especially, these mediated information which recognized as fake news can be found in the fields such as politics, medical health, socioeconomics, ethnicity, ideology, gender and other sensitive topics. Regarding populism, some governors demonstrate ‘self-first’ actions and they sometimes use it as political propaganda against their opponents (Bobo,2017; Lamont, Park&Ayala-Hurtado, 2017; Wang,Luo,Niemi&Li, 2017).

Lexically, Oxford dictionary defines ‘post-truth’ as “relating to or denoting circumstances in which objective facts are less influential in shaping public opinion than appeals to emotion and personal belief”. And Nielsen&Graves(2017) identified types of fake news such as satire, poor journalism, propaganda, some advertising and false news. Similar concepts can enumerate stereotypes (Lippmann,1922), prejudice and rumor. Moreover it definitely claims that it also lacks falsifiability (Popper, 1963) and it seems a kind of solipsism of each claimant.

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Focus Of The Article

When borrowing Marx’s proverbs, a specter is haunting the Worlds -the specter of fake news. All the powers of global communities have entered into a holy alliance to exorcise this specter. At 2nd Feb. 2017, AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of Science) held in an academic symposium for discussing the fake news and post-truth. As through social media, they argued that our contemporary society has vulnerability against verification on fact and credibility of information sources. And of course, Facebook, Twitter and other social media sites have already launched eligible regulations and managements in verifying submitted contents and fact-checking.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Sharp Power: It originally refers to a variety of cyber warfare being operated by authoritarian powers using social media and ICT. It contrasts with hard power (military forces) and soft power (socioeconomic and cultural means).

Fake News: Nielsen and Graves (2017) identified types of fake news such as satire, poor journalism, propaganda, some advertising, and false news.

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