Breeding for Improving Human Nutrition and Grain Quality through Biofortification of Traditional Land Races and Improved Cultivars in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Breeding for Improving Human Nutrition and Grain Quality through Biofortification of Traditional Land Races and Improved Cultivars in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

P. Savitha (Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India) and R. Usha Kumari (Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-0607-2.ch006
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Abstract

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which belongs to the family poaceae, is the life and the prince among cereals as this unique grain helps to sustain two thirds of the world's population. India have traditionally been used or rice cultivation due to availability of water and conductive soil (Nadesa panic). Rice was grown in 155.30 million hectares and around 600 million tonnes of rice harvested each year globally. About 114 countries produce rice with China and India supporting 50 per cent of total production. India stands first in area under cultivation (41.85 mha) and ranks second in production, where as China ranks first in production with just half of the area. India's production is 89.13 million tonnes with a productivity of 2130 kg/ha. Among the rice producing states of India, Tamil Nadu ranks sixth in production (6.53 million tonnes) and second in productivity of 3918 kg/ha with an area of 20.16 lakh ha (Season and Crop Report, 2012). Local farmers in such farming systems retain the traditional varieties based on their knowledge of the quality of the rice varieties and their adaptation to varying agro-ecological situations created by diverse seasons and land situations (Tapasi das & Ashesh Kumar Das, 2014). Among the major micronutrient deficiencies common in rice consuming countries, iron and zinc deficiencies (“hidden hunger”), affect over three billion people worldwide, mostly in developing countries (Welch & Graham, 2004).
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Background

The main objective of the present research work is to study the gene action of yield contributing and the nutritive characters of the traditional landraces of rice collected from Tamil Nadu and Kerala. The experimental material consists of six high yielding ruling rice varieties viz., IR 72, ADT 43, ADT 45, ASD 16, TPS 4 and ADT 39, were utilized as female parent. Four nutritive and medicinal landraces in rice consumed by the people in different parts of Tamil Nadu and Kerala viz., Veeradangan, Kavuni, Kathanellu and Navara were collected and used as male parents. The details of the parental genotypes are presented in Table 1.

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