Bringing Learning and Teaching up to Date

Bringing Learning and Teaching up to Date

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1651-5.ch005
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This chapter of the book examines first various viewpoints about teaching and learning and then focuses on current ways of instruction with the use of social networking. Further text concentrates on instruction in art based on science and technology and then offers curricular postulates about building this kind of teaching and learning philosophy through engaging students in cognitive learning activities. Further text tells about learning with computing. Types of online instruction are described with the use of private network and social networking. The chapter concludes with postulates suggesting inclusion into the school curricula several actions aimed at strengthening the curricular program: iterative and integrative learning, building mathematical foundation, supporting linguistic aptitudes, using visualization techniques, coding, introducing programming, and games that hone cognitive abilities.
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5.1. A Look Into Viewpoints About The Learning Process

Models of learning and teaching styles define the role of a teacher, starting from the ancient Master with apprentices, through the traditional blackboard and chalk as an old school strategy to teach and grade. Old schools gathered students in many grades in one classroom; some university schools revisit this model now while developing experimental programs for prospective teachers and the student teaching programs. A rote model followed, with memorizing and copying writings in the Middle Ages, mnemonics, and recitations to support memory. Home schooling have been present in the Middle Ages, Romanticism, and also now. Tutoring, private tutors in arts, sports, and other areas had an impact on the learning styles.

Learning theories can characterize the learning process that impacts members of the learning group (Driscoll, 2017). The main areas of the understanding of learning (with its structures, learning types, and barriers) comprise according to Knud Illeris (2018): basis (depending on biology, psychology, and social science), internal conditions (involving dispositions, life age, and subjective situation), and external conditions (learning space, society, and objective situation). They lead to applications, which include pedagogy and learning policy (Illeris, 2018).

The advent of experimental psychology brought a change in thinking about the learning process. Early psychology-based learning theories that emerged as the prevalent theories in education included Voluntarism and Connectionism developed by Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949) who provided a framework for experimental behavioral psychology. His Law of Effect and Educational Psychology (2017) was the foundation for developing neural network models artificial intelligence, cognitive science, and neuroscience. Innovators in the field of experimental and educational psychology include, among other theories, Behaviorism (Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, Burrhus Frederick Skinner, John B. Watson), Cognitive theories (Gestalt Psychology–Berlin School, Jean Piaget, Albert Bandura), and Constructivism (Jerome Bruner, Jean Piaget and Bärbel Elisabeth Inhelder).

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