Business Models With H2

Business Models With H2

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2688-9.ch003


Energy transition from a carbon energy driven world to a decarbonized world (H2) is essential for the living for our next generations. Our existing energy source with contents in the beginning (1850) nearly only the element C are used with all their consequences for the burning process and environmental impact. Nowadays the C element in our present energy sources are getting less and less. The environmental impact using fossil energy is huge and with the climate change more and more deadly for the inhabitants on the earth. Producing H2 as a sustainable and renewable energy is only possible using renewable energy sources like PV, Wind, Hydro, Biomass. With today's technology and the constant falling energy prices since the last 20 years H2 is now an alternative secondary energy source for a substitute for fossil sources. Using H2 will give new and unique business advantages. With these business advantages, new and innovative business models can be designed and developed. These novel approaches can be very sensitive to external influences. This destructives situations are making these BM very fragile. Finding ways to stabilize these on a long term without aid from the outside the key for success are new innovative technologies and new innovative BM.
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Energy Transition With Hydrogen As A Renewable Energy Source

Limited and unlimited energy sources are the key factors for the humankind in all areas of live. Depending of the quality of energy more or less work can be done. Today's energy conversion processes with fossil fuels substantially contribute to global warming and climate changes. (Vallero, 2014; Drake, 2014; Stern, 2014; Howar, 2014; Le Quere, 2014).

To reduce the anthropogenic greenhouse gases, new ideas and concepts for RES and energy conversion systems are required. Anthropogenic greenhouse gases, which results from burning fossil energy sources like coal, gas, and oil are changing our climate rapidly. CO2 is the second most important greenhouse gas, which influence our global warming process and therefore our live on earth in different ways. Since the start of the industrialization in the 1850th, the CO2 emission increased over 40%. The amount of burning fossil energy sources in 2015 is more than oil equivalent of 10.500 million tons (BP 2017). At present, more than 400-ppm CO2 concentration in average is in the air (Figure 1). This CO2 concentration is increasing constantly each year through human activities.

Figure 1.

CO2 concentration keeling curve

Moauna La, 2017.

One of the most important greenhouse gases which influence the global warming process is the amount of CO2 in the air. In order to achieve the global climate targets, which were agreed in Paris January 2016 rapid action globally is required to reach the 2°C scenario (Rogelj, 2015; Hansen, 2015; Crastan, 2015) keeping the warming process in human hands.

Compared to the reference year 1990 the amount on CO2 increased over 60% to today’s figure. The IPCC global warming scenario in 2015 shows the curves in which direction we are moving.

Figure 2.

IPCC scenarios

Fuss, 2014.

Research of climate changes and sea level rise over the last 20.000 years shows an increasing of 3.5 K and a sea-level rise of over 100 m up to 10.000 years B.C. Since this time, the temperature change was only around +/- 0.3K and sea-level rise were constant (Gornitz 2015). Since burning fossil energy sources beginning in the 19th centuries the temperature rise around 1,4 K and rapidly increasing (Marcott 2013). The amount of ice which is left on the earth would theoretical rise the sea-level max 60 m until no ice is available any more. Looking to the rapid temperature change in the last 100 years (1.4 K) in comparing the sea level rise from 20.000 B.C. to 10.000 B.C. (3.5 K) of over 100 meter we should start thinking what will happening for the next decade if we cannot stop the climate change!

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