Car Safety: A Statistical Analysis for Marketing Management

Car Safety: A Statistical Analysis for Marketing Management

António Moreira (DEGEI, GOVCOPP, University of Aveiro, Portugal), Monica Gouveia (University of Aveiro, Portugal) and Pedro Macedo (University of Aveiro, Portugal)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-0997-4.ch017
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Car safety is an essential feature of marketing strategies for automobile companies. In this work, a statistical analysis on crash tests is conducted based on data available from European New Car Assessment Programme (Euro NCAP). The research work developed in this chapter presents a statistical analysis of the information produced by Euro NCAP, using the SPSS and MATLAB software, and seeks to answer the following research questions: - are there statistically significant differences on adult occupant safety in the six years under study? - are there statistically significant differences among the best-selling car classes regarding safety in frontal collisions? - are electric and hybrid automobiles less secure than their traditional counterparts with respect to frontal collisions?
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The Importance Of Car Safety

Safety has an increasingly important role in vehicle research because of its economic and social importance. Car safety needs have been disclosed quite long time ago (Seidel, Loch, & Chahil, 2005). For example, Marin and Lenguerrand (2008) show that the risk of a driver being killed in two-car crashes is larger than in single-car crashes. Moreover, the study also shows that when a recent car collides with an older car the driver of the former is more protected than the driver of the latter, which clearly indicates that there has been an improvement of safety and production systems among carmakers. Gronostajski, Bandola, and Karbowski (2006) analyzed the effect of crashworthiness parameters on the behavior of car-body elements, which might have important consequences for passive safety and a threat to life of passengers and persons involved in car accidents. Modelling techniques have also been used to predict the effect on passengers (Orsi, Marchetti, Montomolli, & Morandi, 2013; Pawlus, Karimi, & Robbersmyr, 2013), which is a clear indication of how important car safety has become.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Frontal Full Width Rigid Barrier Test: Introduced in 2015, it tests cars against a rigid barrier with full overlap at a test speed of 50km/h. It simulates a head-on collision between two oncoming cars at moderately high speeds.

Side Mobile Barrier Test: In this test a deformable barrier is mounted on a trolley and is driven at 50km/h into the side of the stationary test vehicle at right angles. A side impact dummy representing an average male is put in the driver’s seat and child dummies are placed in child restraint systems in the rear seat.

Frontal Offset-Deformable Barrier Test: A test carried out in which two frontal impact dummies, representing the average male and child, are placed in the car compartment. This test replicates a crash between two cars of the same weight, both travelling at a speed of 50km/h. Thus, the vehicle structure is evaluated.

Pedestrian Protection Tests: These tests involve the simulation of accidents involving adult and child pedestrians. They assess the potential risk at injuries to pedestrian head, pelvis, and upper and lower leg. The score is determined from tests to the most important vehicle front-end structures such as the bonnet and windshield, the bonnet leading edge, and the bumper.

Whiplash Test: This test is designed to test excessive head movement. It was introduced in 2009 as an integrated neck protection tests on the rear-end collision testing program. The dynamic sled tests indicate how effectively the seat and head restraint operate to provide whiplash protection in typical crash scenarios.

AEB City Test: Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) systems are expected to detect when a low-speed, rear-end collision in which the driver of the striking car is distracted and does not notice that the car ahead has stopped. AEB test when such an accident is likely to occur and the AEB system is expected to intervene by applying the brakes to try to avoid the collision. The test vehicle is driven towards the back of a ‘dummy’ target vehicle at speeds between 10 and 50km/h.

Frontal Impact Score: This test simulates frontal impact between two cars with a speed of about 55km/h. Tests prove that airbags are of added value to support the occupant's head and that seat belts prevent the occupant’s chest to be projected against the wheel.

Side Pole Test: A single average male side impact dummy is placed in the driver’s seat and a car is propelled sideways at 32km/h against a rigid, narrow pole. This is a very severe test of a car’s ability to protect the driver’s head.

Child Occupant Protection Test: It covers the protection offered by the child restraint systems in the frontal and side impact tests, the accommodation of child restraints of various sizes and designs, and the availability of child restraint systems installation checks for safe transport of children in the car.

Safety Assist Score: It is determined from tests to the most important driver assist technologies that support safe driving, and are meant to avoid accidents and mitigate injuries. The tests involve: electronic stability control, seatbelt reminders, speed assistance, AEB interurban, and lane support systems. The aim is to test the functionality of the system, and the performance during normal driving or in typical accident scenarios.

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