Changes in Infrastructural Condition of Slums in India: A State Level Analysis

Changes in Infrastructural Condition of Slums in India: A State Level Analysis

Somenath Ghosh (Visva Bharati University, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-5646-6.ch062


Addressing the importance of infrastructure development towards inclusive city, the study aims to see the change in the condition of housing, road, latrine, drainage, sewerage, etc. within the slums across states and over time in India. The study has been done with the help of three rounds (49th, 58th and 69th) of NSSO data on slum. Though the condition of slums seems to have improved over time, but it is not satisfactory. However, it seems the improvement of one infrastructural aspect in slum is very much associated with the improvement of others. The factors like ‘Workforce Participation Rate of slums' and overall infrastructure of the state have a positive influence on the infrastructural condition of slums, whereas, per capita NSDP is affecting it negatively. The ‘associations made by the residents of slum for improvement' within the slums seems to have played no role to improve it.
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The world is now experiencing a rapid expansion of urban areas with growing urban population1. One among the main reasons behind the rapid growth of urban population is migration from rural to the urban areas either due to pull Lewis (1954), Harris-Todaro (1969) or push Davis (2004) and Harvey (2008) of the population and among those migrants, most of them are poor and take shelter in slums. This phenomenon has created an over congestion toward the slum as well as non-slum areas, which is putting pressure on infrastructure facilities available to the cities2.

Like most other developing countries, urban and slum population in India has grown rapidly. Census data has revealed that the share of slum population out of the urban population and the share of urban population out of total population have increased over time (see Table 1). Moreover, it is found that the rate of growth of slum population is higher than the growth rate of urban population. This situation has added up pressure on civic infrastructure3.

Table 1.
Share of slum and urban population
Year% of Urban Population Out Total Population% of Slum Population Out of Urban Population

Source. Author's calculation with census data of 2001 and 2011

But in contrast with the growth of slum and urban population in India, housing with all proper facilities together (like latrine, electricity, etc.) have not improved accordingly (see Table 2). This may indicate the inadequacy of infrastructural facilities in urban areas. In recent future, urban population in India is estimated to increase to a large extent and will be excess than the capacity of the cities. Compared to this, infrastructure has to grow at a higher rate than the rate the population will increase4.

Table 2.
Percentage of comprehensive or good housing in urban areas
Year% of Proper Housing in Urban Areas with Proper Facilities

Source. Author's calculation with census data of 2001 and 2011

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