Changes in the Technology of Soybean Production

Changes in the Technology of Soybean Production

Dozet Gordana (Megatrend University Belgrade, Serbia), Cvijanovic Gorica (Megatrend University Belgrade, Serbia) and Djukic Vojin (Institute for Field and Vegetables Crops, Serbia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-4098-6.ch001
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Nitrogen is the key element of yield and the most limiting factor in achieving high yields. Nitrogen fertilization is specific because mineral nitrogen, the available form of nitrogen for the plant in the soil, is on one hand subject to leaching losses due to its mobility in the soil and denitrification, and on the other hand to the content increase due to mineralization of soil organic matter. To encourage more intensive adoption of atmospheric nitrogen in nitrogen-fixing, the presence of cobalt and molybdenum is necessary. Molybdenum is required for the binding of atmospheric nitrogen by Azotobacter and plays an important role in the fixation of N2. Legumes treated with molybdenum have a larger amount of fixed nitrogen. Cobalt is relevant to the process of biological fixation of molecular nitrogen. The role of cobalt in biological fixation of molecular nitrogen is specific, and it cannot be replaced in the process by other trace elements. Inoculation of soybean seed with microbiological fertilizer and seed treatment with cobalt and molybdenum, as well as the use of corn crop fertilization with different doses of nitrogen, has a different impact on the yield and properties of soybeans.
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In Serbia, corn is a common crop-preceding soybean. High soybean yield can be provided by growing soybean after corn, as well as other preceding crops. However, when the herbicides used for combating weeds in corn are not applied correctly, and in the years with a small amount of precipitations during the fall and winter, corn-soybean rotation does not give good results. In Serbia, soybean use to separate our field system: corn-wheat. If soybean would be planted after corn, and followed by winter wheat, a great contribution would be made to the improvement of agricultural production as a whole. Winter wheat could be sown early, due to earlier maturing of soybean compared to corn. Corn would be used less as preceding crop to wheat, so late hybrids with higher yielding than the early hybrids could be sown on those surfaces (Nenadić, 1995). The same author recommends corn-soybean-wheat rotation. In Minnesota, an increase in yield by 11% was measured in soybean cultivation in crop rotation (corn-soybean) compared to monoculture (Hicks & Peterson, 1981). Soybean in rotation with corn had significantly higher yields than when grown in monoculture (Dabney et al.,1988). The same conclusion in favor of corn-soybean rotation was also reached by Meese et al. (1991). Amounts of fertilizer applied to corn fertilizing depend on a number of factors, primarily on the amount of planned yield and the supply of nutrients in the soil. Depending on the planned yield (6-10 t ha-1), the need for nitrogen varies between 160 and 300 kg ha-1. The preceding crops favorable for soybean are winter wheat and other small grains. However, according to the three-year period research conducted by the same authors, there were no statistically significant differences in soybean yield when grown after corn and after wheat (Molnar et al., 1983).

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