Channel Bonding in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks: Issues and Challenges

Channel Bonding in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks: Issues and Challenges

S. Hashim Bukhari (COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Pakistan), Mubashir Husain Rehmani (COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Pakistan) and Sajid Siraj (COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Pakistan & University of Portsmouth, UK)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-6212-4.ch005


Wireless sensor networks have gained high importance in many fields, including military, industrial, and the consumer industry. It is due to the fact that these sensors can be deployed almost anywhere and communicate autonomously with each other and/or their gateway devices. Introducing cognitive radio capabilities into these sensor nodes can considerably improve the spectrum utilization, albeit on the cost of additional processing complexities and higher power consumption. In Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks (CRSNs), improving the process of channel bonding may enhance the overall efficiency and effective use of available bandwidth, thereby meeting the requirements of the network of wireless sensor nodes. This chapter discusses issues in the implementation of channel bonding in CRSNs and how to maximize the channel capacity without introducing any harmful interference. Additional constraints and challenges for CRSN nodes are discussed here as future directions and research.
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2 Background

CRNs are generally composed of two types of nodes: primary radio (PR) nodes and the CR nodes. Those users having a valid license to use the band are usually termed as the primary users (Popescu, 2012). They have a priority to access the channel over those users which do not have the license – generally called the CR users or secondary users. CR capable nodes can be made to operate in licensed bands, as well as in the unlicensed bands.

Consider a licensed network that offers m channels of equal bandwidth ∆f with center frequencies at f1, f2… fm. For simplicity, assume that the inter-channel spacing is fixed i.e. fi+1 – fi = ∆f + g, where i=1,2,...,(m-1) and g is the guard band that avoids the possibility of having spectrum leaks from neighbour channels.

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