Child Swaddling or Back Wrapping During Street Trading: Where Are the Media to Protect Child Rights?

Child Swaddling or Back Wrapping During Street Trading: Where Are the Media to Protect Child Rights?

Emmanuel O. Amoo (Demography and Social Statistics, Covenant University, Nigeria), Mofoluwake P. Ajayi (Sociology Department, Covenant University, Nigeria), Faith O. Olanrewaju (Political Science and International Relations, Covenant University, Nigeria), Tomike Olawande (Sociology Department, Covenant University, Nigeria) and Adebanke Olawole-Isaac (Demography and Social Statistics, Covenant University, Nigeria)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 23
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-0329-4.ch012

Abstract

The study is premised on social responsibility and social epidemiological theories and examined the exposure of back-wrapped babies to health risk during street trading. Data were collected using structured face-to-face interviews and snowballing techniques among 228 Street trading women (with children aged ≤ 11 months), in one local government area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Data analyses involved univariate and multivariate methods. The results show that 58.3% of women interviewed wrapped their babies at their back while trading on the streets, ≥80% were not aware of any campaign against baby back-wrapping, 35% viewed baby back-wrapping as medicinal for the baby, and as traditional practice (59.2%). The multivariate analysis revealed that children wrapped while trading on the street are at higher risk of exposure to illness than those not back wrapped (OR=1.778, p=0.042). The authors suggested media campaign against back-wrapping baby while trading on the street to reduce exposure to diseases, mortalities and possibly achievement of sustainable development goal (SDG-3).
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Introduction

The unemployment in developing countries without enabling infrastructural and institutional support releases more people into abject poverty with solace in petty trading with no official location but peddling on the streets (Amoo et al., 2018; Amoo, Ola-David, Olurinola, & Fadayomi, 2012, 2016; Bénit-Gbaffou, 2018; Mizen, 2018). However, with the rising level of street trading, the burden is titled towards women who are by traditional African setting characterized with low economic status (Amoo et al., 2018, 2012, 2016). Considering the nature of Nigerian population structure, the bulk of these women are young and mostly in their reproductive age and may probably be pregnant or nursing babies (Amoo et al., 2012, 2016). Apart from the fact that the nature of this job could pose a threat to the health of women, especially as mothers or potential mothers, the inherent consequences of wrapping baby at the back while trading on the road could be antithetical to the pursuit of Sustainable Development Goals, especially Goal 3.2, 3.6 and 3.9 (Amoo, 2018; Inter-Agency and Expert Group on SDG Indicators (IAEG-SDGs), 2016).

Specific few studies have identified certain childhood diseases such as asthma, atopy, bronchitis and chronic cough to be associated with air pollution (Bowatte et al., 2015; Landrigan, 2017; Mustapha, Blangiardo, Briggs, & Hansell, 2011; Peters et al., 2001; Schwartz, 2004). Amazingly, most of the media efforts on child safety, survival and rights often center on effect of children’ exposure to media, and eventual psychosocial development, attitudes and behaviours (Buckley & Anderson, 2006; Mares & Kretz, 2015; Nieman, 2003), theories on child development also have omitted the issue of swaddling or back-wrapping (Buckley & Anderson, 2006). Many media campaigns only touched on sleeping hours and discouragement against bedsharing which in mothers’ perspective aids child-mother bonding opportunity (Caraballo et al., 2016; Ndu, 2016). The popular back-to-sleep message that focused on safe sleep environment for children only centered on back or side sleeping position of infant and remained silent on back-wrapping (Caraballo et al., 2016; Ottolini et al., 1999). In Nigeria, the awareness of the medically recommended sleep position or the back-to-sleep message for infant has also been proven to be very low (Ndu, 2016; Okpere & Opara, 2014). The media silence or lack of popular campaign on child back-wrapping could be antithetical to the achievement of the current sustainable development goals related to child survival. Thus, the study examined the prevalence of street baby back-wrapping and swaddling, children risk to infections and role of new and mass media in mitigating street and baby back-wrapping and swaddling.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Central Business Districts (CBDs): A central business district is the commercial and business center of a city. In larger cities, it is often synonymous with the city's financial district. Geographically, it often coincides with the city centre.

Street Trading: The selling, or exposing for sale, of articles on certain streets. It means the selling or exposing or the offering for sale of any article (including a living thing) or the supplying or offering to supply any service in a street for gain or reward.

Child’s Rights: These are economic, social and cultural rights, such as the right to education, the right to a decent standard of living, the right to health, etc. Children’s rights include individual rights: the right to live with his parents, the right to education, the right to benefit from a protection.

Media: The main means of mass communication (broadcasting, publishing, and the Internet) regarded collectively. Media are the communication outlets or tools used to store and deliver information or data. The term refers to components of the mass media communications industry, such as print media, publishing, the news media, photography, cinema, broadcasting, and advertising.

Disease: A disorder of structure or function in a human, animal, or plant, especially one that produces specific signs or symptoms or that affects a specific location and is not simply a direct result of physical injury. It is literally the absence of ease.

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), otherwise known as the Global Goals, are a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity.

Swaddling: Swaddling is an age-old practice of wrapping infants in blankets or similar cloths so that movement of the limbs is tightly restricted.

Illness: A disease or period of sickness affecting the body or mind. Illness is the persons experience with disease. It is that person's perception and interpretation of disease.

Child Wrapping: Is the practice of covering baby with cloth. It is means to cover, envelop, or encase a child with cloths especially at the back of the mother.

Baby: A very young child, especially one newly or recently born. In this context, a person aged (0-11 months).

Sustainable Development: It is development that meets the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Thus, sustainable development is the organizing principle for sustaining finite resources necessary to provide for the needs of future generations of life on the planet.

Street Trader: A street trader is someone who sells something in the street, either from a stall or van or with their goods laid out on the sidewalk.

Child Protection: Child protection is the protection of children from violence, exploitation, abuse, and neglect.

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