Circularity and Cultural Heritage Stock

Circularity and Cultural Heritage Stock

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1886-1.ch004

Abstract

With the development of a modern designer's workshop, various smart city issues have to be included in line with more conventional analyses. Presently, we also face emerging circular economy theme, which has a high impact not just on the introduction of circular loops into the flow of building materials, but also on the design approach and management choices. Historic heritage buildings should also be considered within this new theme. Most of the existing research either deals with new or modernized buildings, or with the re-use flows of various materials, often coming from historic buildings gone outside the limits of repair. This chapter explains the proposed approach and includes case studies where such an approach has been provided.
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Circular Approach In Case Of Retrofits

Building sector is one of the key consumers of energy in every continent and Europe is no exception. Throughout a number of years, EU has enacted several directives dealing with energy efficiency in buildings with the aim to reduce their energy use. Unfortunately, these mainly concern modern stock, whereas representatives of the Architectural Heritage have to be specially treated during each design process. Countries adapt their own rules, which often differ from region to region. Furthermore, the European Union Treaty does not include the Cultural Heritage within legislation, which would allow bridging the gap between historic buildings and energy as well as sustainable issues within retrofit processes. The former by now has become an element deeply integrated in everyday design. With the development of a modern designer’s workshop, we now have to include resiliency, passive, ecologic, plus energy, nZEB and other issues (Dalla Mora et al. 2015). Currently, when the civilisation is confronted with a barrier of source scarcity, a shrinking level of not just fossil energy sources but other sources as well, there is a need to remodel the curricula of design education and move first from linear autonomous solutions into interdisciplinary and then circular ones (Rynska 2016). This different approach to design process should include use of external environmental parameters specific to each given location. It is also strongly connected with the emerging circular economy theme. Nevertheless, a deeper analysis distinguishes certain characteristics (Francesca 2017), (Rynska et al 2018). First, development of societies and urbanization should be consistent on a level deeper than presently, and be included within the design processes, organization and planning, as well as modernization and redevelopment procedures of existing urban tissue. Second, urbanization process should be perceived holistically, as an interaction and harmonious development of both natural and manmade environments, with solutions based on the best technical and technological standards available, and circular economy choices. Last - described ideas are achievable only, if we include continuous cooperation between urban planners, architects, specialist consultants, as well as energy effective interdisciplinary solutions to achieve efficient energy measures. One of the thresholds is circular economic feasibility; the other is health and wellbeing of the users whose needs should always be discussed as a priority to any other solutions. Social and education issues may also form important barriers.

Sustainable conditions for design and construction of buildings directly involve implementation of particular design procedures and management methods, specifications of environmentally friendly building materials. Designers participating in building design represent a group of professionals who have direct influence on the process where the building materials become part of a circular closed loop economy. Such approach reduces the dependence of further economic development on the finite supply of natural resources. The choice and the management system is a complicated procedure in which each phase of the building’s life is analysed - it includes production process, used building techniques and technologies, expected building’s end of life which should include re-use of initially build-in either materials or structural elements (Kozminska et al. 2018).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Cultural Diagnosis: A document sometimes provided in Poland for historic buildings and urban sites, it includes both historic and technical transformation data. If required content can be deepened with technical analysis of structure and on-site openings and samples extracted in order to i.e. prepare stratigraphic analysis and check original cladding and colour.

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