Classes and Development

Classes and Development

Zekeriya Eray Eser (Artvin Çoruh University, Turkey)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 15
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-0333-1.ch016

Abstract

Classes forming the social division of labor have changed with the capitalist mode of production. The inheritance from the feudal system is not suitable for the capitalist system. For this reason, the class structure which is suitable for capitalism over time has taken place in many societies. This transformation has become more difficult, especially in the late capitalist countries. This chapter examines class structures of some late-capitalist countries outside Europe and North America. Latin America, Japan, South Korea, and Turkey have historically been studied before and after periods of capitalism. While some countries have successfully completed and managed to develop their class transformations under difficult conditions, some countries have failed. Along with an unsuccessful transformation, new classes have emerged which have preventive effects on the development target. It is difficult for the countries that cannot make their class structure compatible with the capitalist system and the development target.
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Classes Of Pre-Capitalism Period

Far Eastern culture differs greatly from European culture. This difference, of course, has been manifested in the Feudal structure which is specific to the Far East. Throughout history, two countries have emerged as political and military forces, Japan and China. Korea, Taiwan etc. the countries and regions remain between these two power centers. It is not possible to talk about a feudalism in Europe, where there was no social classes which existed in Europe, there were a different way of life, culture and social perception. In Marx's words, there was no class conflict here.

In Japan, the so-called Shogunate period is before with the period that Japan did its revolutions. Although Shogunluk system is an emperor in the country, it is based on limited powers and the country is managed by Shogun, a form of military management. However, there are also feudal lords in the country, not as strong and autonomous as in Europe. These lords have their own military units (Samurai) just as in Western Feudalism. The economy was generally based on agriculture, and there were free peasants with the feudal lord. However, there were traders, bankers. However, there was no competition, contention or conflict between these classes (Eser, 2011: 48).

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