CMOS Image Sensor: Analog and Mixed-Signal Circuits

CMOS Image Sensor: Analog and Mixed-Signal Circuits

Arjuna Marzuki (Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia)
Copyright: © 2017 |Pages: 41
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-0632-4.ch002
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Abstract

In the image sensing optical receiver, such as CMOS Image Sensors (CIS), in general, comprise of photodiode and analog-mixed -signal circuits to amplify small photocurrent into digital signals. The CMOS image sensors are now the technology of choice for most imaging applications, such as digital video cameras, scanner and numerous other. Even though their sensitivity does not reach the one of the best actual CCD's (whose fill factor is about 100%), they are now commonly used because of their multiple functionalities and their easy fabrication. CMOS analog-mixed -signal circuits play a very important role for CMOS image sensors. This chapter will present the recent works on the CMOS analog-mixed -signal circuit for image sensing application, particularly for device related to machine vision application. A review of designing aspect of CIS are done. A proposed light integrating CIS was developed and measured.
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Introduction

The application of CMOS image sensor (CIS) for image sensing device requires a solid understanding of the CMOS image sensor itself (Edmund, 2014). While the understanding of the analog-mixed- signal circuits (basic photodiode, amplifier, ADC, I/O and power supply) are essentially important for the use (and design) the CMOS image sensor. With these understandings, it will help in the design of an image sensing device such as a scanner (Yoshida, 2005). There is so far no detail study on process selection advantages and disadvantages from the mixed-signal circuit design or CMOS Image sensor perspective. There is also so far no detail study on the methodology/approach in designing the CMOS image sensor. Latest good review on the CMOS image sensor is more than 8 years ago (Bigas, Cabruja, Forest & Salvi, 2006). The latest basic analog circuit for CIS was reviewed about 4 years ago (Marzuki, Abd. Aziz, & Abd. Manaf, 2011).

The objective of this chapter:

  • To explain some of the most important parameters such as noise, dynamic range, sensitivity and resolution in relation to the analog-mixed- signal circuit design.

  • Specification of CMOS Image sensor IC in the market.

  • To explain technology option/type of CMOS process.

  • To explain some of design methodologies used in the designing the CMOS Image sensor.

  • To update some of well-known circuit technique/architecture.

  • To contribute a new concept of light integrating which is suitable for CMOS image sensor.

  • To highlight the future research direction.

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Review Of The State Of The Art Of Cmos Image Sensor

This section will review:

  • 1.

    System Requirement,

  • 2.

    CMOS Image sensor IC specifications,

  • 3.

    Technology,

  • 4.

    Design Methodology, and

  • 5.

    Circuit Technique.

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