Collaborating Decision Support and Business Intelligence to Enable Government Digital Connectivity

Collaborating Decision Support and Business Intelligence to Enable Government Digital Connectivity

Leu Fang Yie (Computer Science Department, Tunghai University, Taiwan), Heru Susanto (The Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Indonesia and Brunei University of Technology, Indonesia) and Desi Setiana (Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Brunei)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-4570-6.ch005

Abstract

Many governments around the world are actively engaging in digital transformation, aiming to turn themselves into digital governments. Here, innovation management is one of the most critical factors for such transformation. One approach is to implement business intelligent (BI) and decision support systems (DSS). Collaboration of these two technologies is essential to bring out the best within the organizations, by way of allowing the management to make timely, effective, and correct decisions, including better processing in terms of knowledge and data that the organizations hold. Evidence suggests that implementation and collaboration of DSS and BI results in a positive impact on businesses, organizations, and governments, as well as on other related aspects of the workforce. This chapter proposes and discusses a novel implementation of innovation management approach showcasing the use of DSS and BI in achieving more open digital and connected governments.
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Introduction

In today's world, it can be clearly seen that the information technology has been actively used as the core strategy for growth and progress of many organizations. As businesses have remodelled themselves around digital technologies, people are expecting governments to do the same. The digital revolution has caused citizens to expect their governments to reshape the way they deliver their services and engage with the public. These services include governmental processes as well as updates through the use of latest digital technologies. Because of such digital transformations, governments can be referred to as digital government.

Digital government refers to the use of digital technologies such as the Internet, Mobile applications, Internet of Things (IoT), Cloud Computing, and smart devices, as well as data analytics to satisfy public requirements for services that are fairer, well organized, satisfying, open and effective. It involves all parties such as organisations, businesses and individuals to interact with the government to gain access to data, services and content. The common objective of digital governments is to send valid, timely and relevant information to the citizen e.g. information about holidays, regulatory services, and other citizen centric services. However, as information technology keeps on advancing and the Internet is becoming increasingly prevalent, governments are trying to pursue more than just disseminating information. They are also allowing citizens to engage and participate in the functioning of digital governments through online transaction, digitally accessing and responding to electronic services and other relevant applications. (Almunawar et al., 2015; Almunawar et al., 2018a; Almunawar et al., 2018b).

In other hand, it is common for governmental organizations to compete with each other to fight for dominance to gain control and power in the government services today. However, due to the high numbers of competitive services, it is difficult for the employer and employees to cope with the complexity and fast changing trends in making wise decisions making, in addition to the high business environment pressures. As evident in the process of decision-making, managers face several difficulties due to various levels of uncertainties which indicate the importance of fuzzy logic to deal with decision situations more effectively. In this context, most businesses, organizations, and also governments, are beginning to use both Decision Support Systems (DSS) and Business Intelligence (BI) as the mechanisms to support the organizations in making better and effective decisions. Thus, the purpose of the following literature review, and the sections that follow, is to discuss the collaboration between Decision Support and Business Intelligence systems.

A DSS is a useful tool to assist businesses, organizations, and governments in making better and accurate decisions. This is in order to enhance the actions taken as a result of effective decisions. Decision Support Systems function by combining the data resources from individuals with technology-based capabilities to improve the quality of decisions and actions. There are generally five types of these systems:

Key Terms in this Chapter

Innovation Management Culture: In every organisation, culture is very integral and unique and different organisations have different cultures that might work for some organisations but not for others. Organisational Culture is “The sum of values and rituals which perform as 'glue' to integrate the members within an organisation”. It may include experiences, ways of thinking, future expectations, and beliefs. This aspect of innovation management is dominated by emotional energy and influence. When the culture within the organisation is positive and in sync with the organisation's strategic priorities, it can increase and improve the organisation operations and achieve its strategic goals.

Innovation Management Structure: This key aspect of innovation management includes organisational structure, processes, and infrastructure of the organisation. Having the right organisational structure is very important as it can help the organisation to be innovative and achieve its goals as well as ensuring its survival. Traditionally, most organisations are using hierarchical models in which decisions are taken in a top-down manner. This approach had faced some challenges especially in developing their digital strategies as per an adage that state for every products and services created by a company are reflected by their organisational charts and communication structures i.e. by having a traditional and hierarchical organisation in which the product development teams have a very thick layers with their users, project managers, and so on will mostly having a hard time to ensure acceptance of the products or services from the users.

Innovation Management Capabilities: These refer to organisation's ability to manage resources including employees and meeting their customer/user demands. New skills and capabilities can ensure growth and development in the long term and for organisations to improve their digital transformation efforts, they need to source fresh talent and nurture current skills within the organisations. In innovation management, the capabilities aspect mainly revolves around people's abilities, unique insights, and practical skills in the organisation.

Digital Government Initiatives: These allow a government to provide better services to meet expectations of the citizens and businesses. Digital services allow governments to provide better solutions that optimise services according to the needs of citizens through engagement relationships. By managing innovations well, governments can offer their citizens with efficient systems and respond to their needs faster.

Innovation Management Strategy: Strategy is about positioning for longevity, and making decisions around the organisation on which services and products to deliver, and allocating resources efficiently to achieve the long-term and superior performance. With organisational strategy, it can help to create alignment between the employees in achieving the organisational goals as they know which activities to prioritize more. Furthermore, it can also help to align the organisation's resources and efficiently use them to maximise the strategic success.

IT Innovations to Achieve Digital Government: These are processes that better serve the citizens and improve government services, to achieve the digital transformation. Every government organization needs to make changes in order to adapt the transformation and these transformational journeys are often not smooth.

Innovation Management: This refers to the reinventing of management process in an organisation such as strategic planning project management, knowledge management, employee assessment. Innovation management can create an enduring success if the organisations are able to meet one of the three conditions: 1) it is systemic, 2) it consists of a range of processes and methods and 3) it is part of an ongoing program of inventions.

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